Table 3

Cross-sectional association estimates between proinsulin to insulin ratio and continuous glycemic traits: β coefficients±SE from linear regression models are given per SD proinsulin to insulin ratio

HbA1cFasting glucoseHOMA-IR
n (without/with diabetes)
1366/148
n (without/with diabetes)
1366/148
n (without/with diabetes)
1366/82
Without adjustment
0.29±0.02***0.18±0.02***−0.12±0.03***
Adjustment for sex, age, BMI, physical activity (model 2)
0.21±0.02***0.11±0.02***−0.22±0.02***
  • ***p<0.001.

  • BMI, body mass index; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance.