Table 4

Cross-sectional association estimates between proinsulin to insulin ratio and components of the metabolic syndrome adjusted for sex, age and physical activity (model 1): β coefficients±SE from linear regression models are given per SD

Adjusted β±SEP value
Elevated waist circumference*
(yes: n=1011; no: n=503)
−0.22±0.03<0.001
Elevated triglycerides†
(yes: n=371; no: n=1143)
0.08±0.080.21
Reduced HDL cholesterol‡
(yes: n=276; no: n=1238)
−0.08±0.070.23
Elevated fasting glucose§
(yes: n=463; no: n=1051)
0.30±0.06<0.001
Elevated blood pressure¶
(yes: n=740; no: n=774)
0.03±0.060.62
  • *Defined as ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men.

  • †Defined as ≥1.7 mmol/L and/or intake of fibrates or nicotinic acid.

  • ‡Defined as <1.0 mmol/L in men and <1.3 mmol/L in women and/or intake of fibrates or nicotinic acid.

  • §Ddefined as ≥5.6 mmol/L and/or intake of antidiabetic medication.

  • ¶Defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medication, given that the participants were aware of being hypertensive.

  • HDL, high-density lipoprotein.