Table 2

Effect of insulin on the renal handling of glucose, Na+ and K+ in healthy subjects during SGLT2 inhibition*

BaselineEmpaP value†SalineInsulinP value‡
Glucose filtration rate (mmol/min)0.69 (0.10)0.99 (0.33)ns1.55 (0.45)1.54 (0.63)ns
Glucose excretion rate (µmol/min)0.2 (0.3)146 (89)0.04581 (212)588 (294)0.03
Fractional glucose excretion (%)0.03 (0.04)20.2 (7.0)0.0435.8 (6.7)37.3 (7.2)0.05
Na+ filtration rate (mEq/min)24.6 (4.6)27.0 (9.6)ns22.5 (5.8)23.1 (5.8)0.04
Na+ excretion rate (mEq/min)0.06 (0.01)0.21 (0.07)0.040.19 (0.12)0.22 (0.18)0.05
Fractional Na+ excretion (%)0.27 (0.05)0.80 (0.20)0.040.90 (0.42)0.90 (0.70)ns
K+ filtration rate (mEq/min)0.83 (0.08)1.08 (0.56)ns0.77 (0.30)0.55 (0.19)0.02
K+ excretion rate (mEq/min)0.09 (0.06)0.11 (0.03)ns0.07 (0.02)0.03 (0.01)0.03
Fractional K+ excretion (%)10.8 (6.28)8.5 (5.28)ns9.5 (5.1)4.0 (2.1)0.03
  • *Entries are median (IQR).

  • †For empa period versus baseline.

  • ‡For the paired comparison between saline and insulin (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

  • ns, not significant; SGLT2, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2.