Table 5

HRs (95% CI) for overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal and fatal stroke, and non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death in dependence on proinsulin to insulin ratio (per SD)

All-cause mortalityCardiovascular mortalityNon-fatal or fatal stroke, myocardial infarction, or coronary death
n (non-cases)†139114591262
n (cases)‡1235593
Without adjustment
Total study cohort1.57 (1.31 to 1.88)***1.74 (1.33 to 2.27)***1.33 (1.09 to 1.63)**
Adjustment for sex, age, BMI, arterial hypertension, physical activity (model 3)
Total study cohort1.16 (0.96 to 1.42)1.22 (0.90 to 1.64)1.01 (0.81 to 1.26)
  • **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Number of participants without events.

  • ‡Number of events.

  • BMI, body mass index.