Table 3

Predictors for diabetes, prediabetes, and impaired glucose metabolism

Risk factorsPredictors for diabetesPredictors for prediabetesPredictors for impaired glucose metabolism
UnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariate
OR (CI) P valueOR (CI)P valueOR (CI)P valueOR (CI) P valueOR (CI) P valueOR (CI)P value
Age (years)1.07 (1.05 to 1.08)<0.0011.08 (1.05 to 1.12)<0.0011.04 (1.03 to 1.05)<0.0011.03 (1.02 to 1.05)<0.0011.04 (1.03 to 1.05)<0.0011.04 (1.03 to 1.05)<0.001
Sex (female vs male)1.21 (0.66 to 2.31)0.5481.09 (0.47 to 2.60)0.8511.17 (0.84 to 1.64)0.3680.73 (0.46 to 1.15)0.6421.17 (0.86 to 1.61)0.3070.78 (0.51 to 1.18)0.237
BMI (kg/m2)*1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)<0.0011.10 (1.04 to 1.16)<0.0011.08 (1.05 to 1.11)<0.0011.07 (1.04 to 1.10)<0.0011.08 (1.06 to 1.11)<0.0011.07 (1.04 to 1.10)<0.001
BP systolic (mm Hg)†1.02 (1.02 to 1.03)<0.0011.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.7981.01 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.0010.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.1591.02 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.0011.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.349
BP diastolic (mm Hg)‡1.04 (1.02 to 1.06)<0.0011.01 (0.98 to 1.04)0.7311.03 (1.02 to 1.04)<0.0011.02 (1.00 to 1.04)0.0281.03 (1.02 to 1.04)<0.0011.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.081
Hemoglobin (g/L)1.00 (0.87 to 1.14)0.9561.15 (0.86 to 1.53)0.3490.90 (0.83 to 0.97)0.0040.90 (0.78 to 1.04)0.1610.91 (0.85 to 0.98)0.0130.94 (0.82 to 1.07)0.334
Anemia (WHO)§1.04 (0.58 to 1.92)0.8940.72 (0.27 to 1.99)0.5230.69 (0.50 to 0.94)0.0190.75 (0.44 to 1.26)0.2690.74 (0.56 to 0.99)0.0450.75 (0.46 to 1.23)0.249
HIV positive vs negative¶0.88 (0.20 to 2.53)0.8280.45 (0.08 to 1.84)0.3101.10 (0.59 to 1.97)0.7570.59 (0.26 to 1.27)0.1921.05 (0.58 to 1.82)0.8720.55 (0.26 to 1.14)0.119
Acute infection**1.77 (0.69 to 3.91)0.2173.46 (1.02 to 10.8)0.0381.60 (0.96 to 2.62)0.0702.79 (1.46 to 5.30)0.0021.63 (1.02 to 2.58)0.0432.99 (1.62 to 5.54)<0.001
History of smoking0.28 (0.01 to 1.33)0.1290.12 (0.01 to 0.75)0.0590.95 (0.50 to 1.71)0.8721.05 (0.51 to 2.09)0.8870.81 (0.43 to 1.44)0.4790.84 (0.41 to 1.64)0.614
Albuminuria
ACR ≥30 (mg/g)††
4.18 (2.17 to 7.78)<0.0013.63 (1.64 to 7.83)0.0011.42 (0.88 to 2.25)1.5201.14 (0.67 to 1.89)0.6261.86 (1.23 to 2.8)0.0041.48 (0.93 to 2.34)0.094
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)‡‡0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.0011.02 (1.00 to 1.04)0.0460.98 (0.98 to 0.99)<0.0011.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.3580.98 (0.98 to 0.99)<0.0010.99 (0.99 to 1.01)0.922
  • Impaired glucose metabolism: patients with diabetes and prediabetes.

  • *Underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were defined according to WHO BMI reference standards.

  • †BP systolic: blood pressure systolic.

  • ‡BP diastolic: blood pressure diastolic.

  • §Anemia according to WHO25: <120 g/L female,<130 g/L male.

  • ¶HIV positive: 44 patients were diagnosed with HIV by testing within the study, 22 patients had a history of HIV and 20 of them were on antiretroviral therapy.

  • **Acute infection, acute systemic infection/inflammation or possible UTI, that is, body temperature of ≥38.5°C (armpit), acute malaria, acute TB, leukocyte count >20/HPF in urinary sediment or newly positive tested HIV cases.

  • ††ACR.

  • ‡‡eGFR with CKD-EPI formula.20

  • ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index ; CKD-EPI, chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; TB, tuberculosis; UTI, urinary tract infection.