Table 1

Overview of the 30 topics of interest for people with or talking about diabetes and their gender and type of diabetes distributions

No.Topic labelTop wordsGender(%)DiabetesType(%)Tweet description
1Support/Solidarity in diabetes communityhappy, birthday, day, #dsma,#t1d, insulinEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Happy birthday wishes

  • Affection / Support / Solidarity messages

2Inspiring relatives living with diabeteslove, t1d, amazing, #t1d, awesomeEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Inspiring friends and families when living with diabetes or helping to live a better life

  • Pointing to people campaigning for diabetes issues and affordable insulin

3Sharing hope and encouraginghope, well, #dsma, get, soon, betterEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Encouraging people with diabetes

  • Hoping to find a cure for diabetes

4Diabetes awareness / Support / Donationhelp, love, please, us, let, awarenessEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Supporting each other within the diabetes community

  • Raising awareness for diabetes and its complications

  • Donations to get insulin

5DSMA* enjoying online support#dsma, good, :), glad, tonight, loveEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Friendly exchanges within the DSMA* online community

  • Being thankful for the people’s effort and activity

  • Questions within the DSMA online community

6Sharing diabetes related storiesgood, bad, news, really, know, likeEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • People telling stories about diabetes or diabetes treatment

  • Messages about daily struggle with diabetes

7T1D hashtags#t1d, #diabetes, #type1diabetes, loveEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageMainly short, incoherent messages with several hashtags relating to type one diabetes, such as #t1d, #t1dlife, #t1dmom, or #Dexcom
8Diabetes carecare, take, health, insulin, one, takingEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Talking about diabetes care or mental health with diabetes

  • Indignation about the healthcare system

9Bloodsugar palette (beauty products)#bloodsugar, got, palette, excited, love,Embedded ImageEmbedded Image“Spam” about the beauty product “Blood Sugar Palette” palette
10Advocacy for affordable insulin#insulin4all, insulin, good, thank, love, usEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Encouraging people advocating for affordable insulin

  • Talking about healthcare activism

11Life with and without diabeteswould, love, could, insulin, like, oneEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Hypothetical life without diabetes

  • Frustration about how people without diabetes poorly understood their conditions

12Life with type one diabetes#t1d, #diabetes, love,#type1diabetesEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Messages about Dexcom devices

  • Seeking for encouragement

  • Life with type one diabetes

13Glucose guardianglucose, guardian, need, love, fatherEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageLooking for glucose guardians. This is a gender neutral term for a person who is giving money, often to buy insulin, in exchange for some favor or something in return.
14Chatting about insulinlove, insulin, #dsma good, glucose, oneEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageTalking about insulin
15Insulin and insulin pump complicationsinsulin, pump, love, hope, got, new, feelEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Unhappiness about having to manage the insulin pump

  • Insulin had no effect or was bad

16Diabetes in familyfamily, runs, friends, know, type, historyEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Worries about getting diabetes because of family predisposition

  • Family support

17Diaversaryyears, ago, two, type, one, insulinEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageCelebrating birthday of diabetes diagnosis
18Day-to-day stories about diabetesday, today, insulin, glucose, good, lastEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageDay-to-day stories about diabetes or insulin adjustment
19Confusion between T1D and T2Dtype, one, two, good, love, people, feelEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageFrustration about people’s inability to distinguish between type 1 and type two diabetes
20Diagnosisdiagnosed,type, old, two, since, year, oneEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageTalking about their own diabetes diagnosis or the one of their child
21Glycemic instabilityglucose, blood, high, sugar, insulin, levelsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Difficulty to keep blood sugar levels stable

  • Suffering from low or high blood sugar - Reliefs about keeping blood sugar levels normal

22Insulininsulin, good, like, need, people, feelEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Talking about expensive insulin and people who cannot afford treatment

  • Insecurity about insulin

23Diabetes pop star Nick Jonasnick, jonas, cried, remember, foundEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageTalking about pop star Nick Jonas who has type one diabetes and wrote a song about it
24Misunderstandings of diabetespeople, know, like, one, understandEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Complaining about the public view on diabetes

  • Unclear relationship for many people between food and blood sugar / diabetes

25Frustration with insulin pricesinsulin, afford, cost, cannot, insuranceEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Frustration with high insulin prices

  • Insurance as elementary factor to get insulin

26OGTT**glucose, test, hour, today, tomorrowEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageDreading glucose drink and glucose tests (mostly during pregnancy)
27Parents and diabetesmom, dad, got, died, insulin, one, bad, lostEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageParents-children stories related to diabetes
28Diabetes Distressfeel, like, hate, sick, really, bad, feelingEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Sharing feelings of sadness and depressive symptoms

  • Feeling scared or anxious about insulin use

  • Hate towards own diabetes

29Diabetic/Insulin Shockshock, insulin, went, going, coma, wouldEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Going into diabetic shock after eating sweet food

  • Sharing experience of going into insulin shocks

30Diabetes-related comorbiditiesanxiety, depression, pain, neuropathy, heart, cancerEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageTalking about diabetes-related complications such as depression, anxiety, heart diseases, nerve pain, chronic pain and other health issues
  • For each topic the following information is provided: the topic label, the most frequent words, gender (M=men, F=women, U=unknown) and type of diabetes (T1=type 1 diabetes, T2=type 2 diabetes, U=unknown) distribution and a tweet description.

  • DSMA, Diabetes Social Media Advocacy online group; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.