Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants

Total, n=2420South group,
n=1516
North group,
n=904
Unadjusted
P value
Adjusted P value*
Male, n (%)1147 (48.5)656 (44.8)491 (54.4)<0.001
Age, year54.5±13.857.0±13.750.5±13.0<0.001
Cigarette smoker, n (%)619 (25.6)340 (22.4)279 (30.9)<0.001<0.001
Mild–moderate alcohol drinker, n (%)510 (21.1)212 (14.0)298 (33.0)<0.001<0.001
Alcohol consumption,
g/week†
48.0 (18.0–72.9)36.0 (5.2–84.0)54.0 (18.0–72.0)0.2520.656
Lifetime alcohol consumption,g†540.0 (67.2–1354.5)345.6 (24.0–1488.0)684.0 (176.4–1224.0)0.0990.855
Statins treatment, n (%)221 (9.1)116 (7.7)105 (11.6)0.0010.002
BMI, kg/m224.7±3.624.7±3.724.6±3.50.2730.299
WC, cm87.1±10.887.1±11.487.2±9.80.8240.470
SBP, mm Hg131.4±19.7134.2±20.4126.8±17.5<0.001<0.001
DBP, mm Hg80.2±17.580.1±20.380.3±11.30.7410.759
FBG, mmol/L5.8 (5.1–7.5)5.8 (5.2–7.4)5.8 (5.1–7.6)0.7430.123
OGTT-2hBG, mmol/L9.8 (6.5–15.7)9.8 (6.3–15.6)9.8 (6.7–15.9)0.1430.046
Glucose metabolism
 NGT750 (31.0%)462 (30.5%)288 (31.9%)0.4620.142
 IGR425 (17.6%)277 (18.3%)148 (16.4%)
 T2DM1245 (51.4%)777 (51.3%)468 (51.8%)
TC, mmol/L4.9±1.24.9±1.24.9±1.30.9730.348
TG, mmol/L1.4 (1.0–2.2)1.4 (1.0–2.1)1.4 (1.0–2.3)0.6320.271
HDL-c, mmol/L1.3±0.41.3±0.41.3±0.40.6790.823
LDL-c, mmol/L2.8±0.92.9±0.92.8±0.90.0180.242
ALT, U/L16 (11–26)13 (9–20)23 (16–32)<0.001<0.001
AST, U/L19 (13–25)16 (11–23)22 (17–29)<0.001<0.001
GGT, U/L25 (16–45)22 (15–34)37 (20–65)<0.001<0.001
UA, μmol/L299.8±95.7301.1±88.8297.6±106.20.3870.344
NAFLD, n(%)1050 (43.4%)545 (35.9%)505 (55.9%)<0.001<0.001
LFC, %12.3 (7.1–21.0)10.9 (6.6–19.4)14.4 (8.3–23.9)<0.001<0.001
  • Data are in n (%), means±SD or median (25th–75th percentile), as appropriate.

  • *Adjusted for age and gender.

  • †Compared in 510 mild–moderate alcohol drinkers.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IGR, impaired glucose regulation; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LFC, liver fat content; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; OGTT-2hBG, 2-hour postload blood glucose in oral glucose tolerance test; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; TG, triglyceride; UA, uric acid; WC, waist circumference.