Table 2

Number and incidence rate of cancer, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality

EventBefore weightingAfter weighting
Cumulative incidenceCrude incidence rate
(cases/100 person-years)
Median follow-up period (months)Mean follow-up period (months)Incidence rate (cases/100 person-years)
Cases with eventRateEstimate95% CI*Person-yearsEstimate95% CI*
Total (n=20 577)
 Cancer5710.0280.97(0.89 to 1.06)58 687.1728341.00(0.95 to 1.05)
  Lip, oral cavity and pharynx180.0010.03(0.02 to 0.05)59 507.3328350.03(0.03 to 0.04)
  Digestive organs2480.0120.42(0.37 to 0.47)59 240.6728350.41(0.38 to 0.44)
   Esophagus, stomach, and small intestine220.0010.04(0.02 to 0.06)59 514.2528350.03(0.02 to 0.03)
   Colorectum1050.0050.18(0.14 to 0.21)59 382.9228350.19(0.17 to 0.22)
   Colon750.0040.13(0.10 to 0.16)59 441.9228350.15(0.13 to 0.17)
   Rectum/anus 430.0020.07(0.05 to 0.10)59 460.9228350.09(0.07 to 0.10)
   Liver 560.0030.09(0.07 to 0.12)59 459.8328350.08(0.07 to 0.10)
   Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct220.0010.04(0.02 to 0.06)59 516.0828350.05(0.04 to 0.06)
   Pancreas460.0020.08(0.06 to 0.10)59 513.5828350.06(0.05 to 0.07)
  Respiratory system650.0030.11(0.08 to 0.14)59 471.8328350.15(0.13 to 0.17)
  Bone, skin and soft tissure220.0010.04(0.02 to 0.06)59 498.3328350.04(0.03 to 0.05)
  Breast and genital organs (for female only)840.0090.32(0.25 to 0.40)26 283.0028350.27(0.24 to 0.31)
  Urinary organs360.0020.06(0.04 to 0.08)59 459.8328350.09(0.08 to 0.11)
  Eye, brain and central nervous system, endocrine glands130.0010.02(0.01 to 0.04)59 512.0828350.03(0.02 to 0.03)
  Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue430.0020.07(0.05 to 0.10)59 492.9228350.05(0.04 to 0.07)
 Cancer mortality1790.0090.31(0.26 to 0.35)58 538.8328340.29(0.27 to 0.32)
 All-cause mortality14890.0722.54(2.42 to 2.68)58 538.8328342.09(2.02 to 2.16)
DPP4i as third-line medication (n=9957)
 Cancer2000.0200.76(0.66 to 0.87)26 428.2528320.83(0.75 to 0.91)
  Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx70.0010.03(0.01 to 0.05)26 697.0829320.03(0.01 to 0.04)
  Digestive organs760.0080.29(0.22 to 0.36)26 629.3328320.32(0.27 to 0.37)
   Esophagus, stomach, and small intestine70.0010.03(0.01 to 0.05)26 710.3329320.03(0.01 to 0.04)
   Colorectum370.0040.14(0.10 to 0.19)26 662.0828320.15(0.12 to 0.18)
   Colon280.0030.10(0.07 to 0.15)26 677.5028320.11(0.09 to 0.15)
   Rectum/anus140.0010.05(0.03 to 0.09)26 693.1729320.06(0.04 to 0.08)
   Liver170.0020.06(0.04 to 0.10)26 694.1729320.07(0.05 to 0.10)
   Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct40.0000.01(0.00 to 0.04)26 710.5829320.01(0.00 to 0.02)
   Pancreas110.0010.04(0.02 to 0.07)26 706.3329320.06(0.04 to 0.08)
  Respiratory system190.0020.07(0.04 to 0.11)26 695.6729320.08(0.06 to 0.11)
  Bone, skin, and soft tissue100.0010.04(0.02 to 0.07)26 688.7529320.04(0.03 to 0.06)
  Breast and genital organs (for females only)330.0080.28(0.20 to 0.40)11 614.6729320.30(0.24 to 0.38)
  Urinary organs150.0020.06(0.03 to 0.09)26 691.4229320.05(0.04 to 0.08)
  Eye, brain and central nervous system, endocrine glands50.0010.02(0.01 to 0.04)26 703.2529320.02(0.01 to 0.03)
  Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue150.0020.06(0.03 to 0.09)26 702.5829320.06(0.04 to 0.08)
 Cancer mortality510.0050.19(0.14 to 0.25)26 318.9228320.21(0.17 to 0.25)
 All-cause mortality3160.0321.20(1.07 to 1.34)26 318.9228321.23(1.14 to 1.33)
Insulin as third-line medication (n=7760)
 Cancer3360.0431.21(1.09 to 1.35)27 700.7539430.97(0.90 to 1.05)
  Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx90.0010.03(0.01 to 0.06)28 193.6740440.03(0.02 to 0.04)
  Digestive organs1560.0200.56(0.47 to 0.65)28 015.3340430.44(0.39 to 0.49)
   Esophagus, stomach, and small intestine150.0020.05(0.03 to 0.09)28 186.8340440.04(0.03 to 0.06)
   Colorectum580.0070.21(0.16 to 0.27)28 122.0040430.16(0.13 to 0.20)
   Colon390.0050.14(0.10 to 0.19)28 162.2540440.12(0.09 to 0.15)
   Rectum/anus240.0030.09(0.05 to 0.13)28 161.2540440.06(0.04 to 0.08)
   Liver370.0050.13(0.09 to 0.18)28 150.2540440.10(0.07 to 0.12)
   Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct150.0020.05(0.03 to 0.09)28 189.5040440.06(0.04 to 0.08)
   Pancreas340.0040.12(0.08 to 0.17)28 190.2540440.09(0.07 to 0.11)
  Respiratory system400.0050.14(0.10 to 0.19)28 170.8340440.12(0.09 to 0.15)
  Bone, skin, and soft tissue100.0010.04(0.02 to 0.07)28 194.4240440.04(0.03 to 0.06)
  Breast and genital organs (for females only)480.0140.38(0.28 to 0.50)12 734.1742440.30(0.24 to 0.37)
  Urinary organs180.0020.06(0.04 to 0.10)28 160.7540440.04(0.03 to 0.06)
  Eye, brain, and central nervous system, endocrine glands70.0010.02(0.01 to 0.05)28 192.6740440.02(0.01 to 0.04)
  Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue270.0030.10(0.06 to 0.14)28 174.7540440.08(0.06 to 0.10)
 Cancer mortality1200.0150.43(0.36 to 0.52)27 705.8339430.37(0.32 to 0.42)
 All-cause mortality11350.1464.10(3.86 to 4.34)27 705.8339433.22(3.09 to 3.37)
TZD as third-line medication (n=2860)
 Cancer350.0120.77(0.53 to 1.07)4558.1714191.27(1.16 to 1.38)
  Lip, oral cavity, and pharynx20.0010.04(0.01 to 0.16)4616.5814190.05(0.03 to 0.08)
  Digestive organs160.0060.35(0.20 to 0.57)4596.0014190.47(0.41 to 0.54)
   Esophagus, stomach, and small intestine00.0000.00NA†4617.0814190.00NA†
   Colorectum100.0030.22(0.10 to 0.40)4598.8314190.30(0.25 to 0.35)
   Colon80.0030.17(0.08 to 0.34)4602.1714190.24(0.20 to 0.30)
   Rectum/anus50.0020.11(0.04 to 0.25)4606.5014190.17(0.13 to 0.21)
   Liver20.0010.04(0.01 to 0.16)4615.4214190.06(0.04 to 0.09)
   Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct30.0010.06(0.01 to 0.19)4616.0014190.09(0.06 to 0.12)
   Pancreas10.0000.02(0.00 to 0.12)4617.0014190.02(0.01 to 0.04)
  Respiratory system60.0020.13(0.05 to 0.28)4605.3314190.29(0.24 to 0.34)
  Bone, skin, and soft tissue20.0010.04(0.01 to 0.16)4615.1714190.04(0.02 to 0.06)
  Breast and genital organs (for females only)30.0020.16(0.03 to 0.45)1934.1714180.19(0.13 to 0.26)
  Urinary organs30.0010.07(0.01 to 0.19)4607.6714190.21(0.17 to 0.26)
  Eye, brain, and central nervous system, endocrine glands10.0000.02(0.00 to 0.12)4616.1714190.04(0.03 to 0.07)
  Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue10.0000.02(0.00 to 0.12)4615.5814190.01(0.00 to 0.03)
 Cancer mortality80.0030.18(0.08 to 0.35)4514.0814190.30(0.24 to 0.35)
 All-cause mortality380.0130.84(0.60 to 1.16)4514.0814191.45(1.34 to 1.57)
  • *The 95% CI was constructed based on Poisson distribution.

  • †Not available since no case for esophagus, stomach, and small intestine cancer with TZD as third-line medication.

  • DPP4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; NA, not applicable due to no observations; TZD, thiazolidinediones.