Table 1

Baseline claims-based characteristics after matching

SGLT2i (N=4298)GLP-1RA (N=4298)SMD*P value†
Demographics
 Age at index date (years)62.7 (9.2)62.8 (9.7)−0.010.230
 Female sex (%)3736.9<0.010.964
 Claims-based history length‡ (months)60.4 (11.9)60.3 (14.5)<0.010.004
 Claims-based diabetes duration§ (months)113 (65.3)113 (66.2)<0.010.491
Risk factors
 Hypertension (%)81.783−0.030.134
 Dyslipidemia (%)75.2740.030.215
Macrovascular complications
 Peripheral circulatory complications (%)2.320.020.502
 Infarction (%)8.17.60.020.470
 Ischemic heart disease (%)13.112.70.010.629
 Stroke or TIA (%)4.54.10.020.456
 Heart failure (%)2.82.8<0.011.000
 Cardiovascular disease (%)18.317.70.020.465
Microvascular complications
 Neurological complications (%)0.60.40.020.439
 Ocular complications (%)0.50.5<0.011.000
 Renal complications (%)0.40.5−0.010.748
 Chronic kidney disease (%)1.41.8−0.030.198
Severe hypoglycemia (%)1.10.90.030.281
Comorbidities
 Chronic pulmonary disease (%)33.233.8−0.010.552
 Systemic inflammatory disease (%)2.22.2<0.011.000
 Cancer (%)10.610.7<0.011.000
 Charlson comorbidity index0.5 (1.2)0.5 (1.1)−0.010.107
Glucose lowering medications
 Different A10B therapies (n)¶2.3 (1.3)2.3 (1.2)<0.010.392
 Ever used insulin (%)33.933.6<0.010.837
 Any insulin (%)28.529.1−0.010.552
 Long-acting insulin (%)27.928.1<0.010.904
 Fast-acting insulin (%)12.813.4−0.020.388
 Metformin (%)89.089.0<0.010.973
 Sulfonylureas (%)43.644.0−0.010.794
 DPP4i (%)30.831.3−0.010.624
 Pioglitazone (%)12.712.40.010.721
Other therapies
 ACE inhibitors (%)70.271.3−0.030.255
 Diuretics (%)18.218.7−0.010.578
 Beta blockers (%)35.636.2−0.010.574
 Other antihypertensives (%)7.57.7−0.010.684
 Statins (%)64.564.5<0.011.000
 Fibrates or omega-3 (%)12.612.20.010.578
 PCSK9 inhibitors (%)000N/A
 Ezetimibe (%)3.93.9<0.011.000
 Platelet aggregation inhibitors (%)35.035.9−0.020.417
Clinical-laboratory data
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)168.5 (48.4)161.5 (42.3)0.150.013
 HbA1c (%)8.0 (1.1)7.8 (0.9)0.21<0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)168.6 (37.8)168.8 (37.2)−0.010.497
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)47.3 (13.9)47.9 (12.8)−0.040.142
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)93.6 (33.6)93.0 (32.4)0.020.326
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)137.1 (56.6)139.4 (57.4)−0.040.237
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)141.9 (20.9)141.9 (18.7)<0.010.371
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81.2 (10.6)81.1 (10.7)<0.010.450
  • Unless otherwise indicated, medication-related variables were calculated starting from 12 months before the index date. Pre-existing conditions were assessed with all available data up to the index date. SMD values reported as ‘<0.01’ are, in fact, <0.01 and >−0.01.

  • *SMDs (positive if SGLT2i greater).

  • †χ2 test for categorical variables (expressed as %), Mann-Whitney test otherwise.

  • ‡Time interval between the first available claim and the index date.

  • §Time interval between the first claim or exemption from copayment indicating diabetes and the index date.

  • ¶Computed using all available data up to the index date.

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; DPP4i, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; GLP-1RA, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein;; PCSK9, proprotein convertase subtilisin kinase-9; SGLT2i, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors; SMD, standardized mean difference; TIA, transient ischemic attack.