Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population living in neighborhoods within the lowest and highest decile of walkability (n=1,128,181)

Variables N (%)Least walkability decile (D1)*
(n=145 251)
Most walkability decile (D10)*
(n=103 218)
Mean±SD age†41.9±11.340.7±11.3
Female86 476 (59.5)61 271 (59.4)
Income quintile (Q)‡
Q1 (lowest)7689 (5.3)31 692 (30.7)
Q5 (highest)52 069 (35.8)15 677 (15.2)
Mean±SD walkability score−3.7±0.79.4±4.5
Immigration status
Immigrants30 598 (21.1)24 530 (23.8)
Long-term residents114 653 (78.9)78 688 (76.2)
Previous hypertension20 700 (14.3)11 953 (11.6)
Mean±SD lipids
Total cholesterol5.26±1.055.20±1.06
Mean±SD age glucose
Fasting (FPG)5.1±0.55.0±0.5
  • All variables were significant at p<0.001.

  • Study area: Greater Toronto Area, Hamilton, Ottawa, London.

  • *Least walkability refers to the lowest decile of walkability and most walkability refers to the highest decile of walkability.

  • †Demographic information (age and sex) were obtained from the Registered Persons Database.

  • ‡The 2006 Canadian census to produce neighborhood income quintiles adjusting for household and community size.

  • FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.