Table 1

Demographics summarized using mean (SD) and percentages

All participants*
Highly engaged†
Minimally engaged‡
P value
Age (years), mean (SD)49.7 (12.0)54.8 (10.6)47.3 (11.9)<0.001
Starting weight (kg), mean (SD)93.9 (21.0)90.6 (20.1)95.5 (21.2)<0.001
Starting BMI (kg/m²), mean (SD)33.3 (6.8)32.2 (6.4)33.8 (7.0)<0.001
Age group
 18–44 (%)32.314.740.7<0.001
 45–64 (%)57.467.852.4<0.001
 65+ (%)10.317.56.9<0.001
 Normal (%)
 Overweight (%)<0.001
 Class I obesity (%)28.828.129.10.650
 Class II obesity (%)17.513.519.40.001
 Class III obesity (%)15.612.816.90.010
College graduate (%)77.781.875.80.002
Not a college graduate (%)22.117.624.2<0.001
Education undisclosed (%)
Male (%)26.028.924.60.040
Risk factor for diabetes
 Blood glucose test (%)33.839.431.1<0.001
 Gestational diabetes (%)
 CDC risk test (%)
Weight loss at 12 months (%)
  • *All participants: any participant enrolled in Livongo DPP who attended lesson 1 and provided a starting weight.

  • †Highly engaged participants: participants who met the CDC high-engagement criteria by completing nine lessons within months 1–6 of the program and three lessons within months 7–12 of the program with a minimum of 9 months between first and final lessons completed.21

  • ‡Minimally engaged participants: all participants not meeting the CDC high-engagement criteria.21

  • BMI, body mass index; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DPP, diabetes prevention program.