Table 2

Factors related to any incident glycemic progression (A), any progression from NGT (B) and progression from prediabetes to diabetes (C) and any regression from predibetes to NGT (D) between baseline and follow-up, MASALA study

Full modelOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
A.Any glycemic progression
Full model
Any glycemic progression
Reduced model
Age1.05 (0.81 to 1.35)1.05 (0.85 to 1.30)
Sex1.96 (1.10 to 3.50)1.26 (0.82 to 1.94)
Follow-up time1.30 (0.98 to 1.71)1.27 (0.99 to 1.64)
Hypertension2.18 (1.34 to 3.54)2.21 (1.44 to 3.40)
Waist circumference1.34 (0 .85 to 2.10)
BMI0.89 (0.80 to 0.99)
Visceral fat1.33 (0.92 to 1.92)1.36 (1.06 to 1.74)
Hepatic fat0.69 (0.52 to 0.91)0.67 (0.55 to 0.87)
Pericardial fat1.08 (0.78 to 1.50)
HDL0.80 (0.60 to 1.07)
Triglycerides1.00 (0.79 to 1.26)
Disposition index0.94 (0.75 to 1.18)
Insulin sensitivity index0.97 (0.62 to 1.51)
B.Any progression from NGT
Full model
Any progression from NGT
Reduced model
Age1.53 (1.07 to 2.18)1.38 (1.03 to 1.84)
Sex1.44 (0.61 to 3.38)0.88 (0.49 to 1.58)
Follow-up time1.16 (0.77 to 1.75)1.17 (0.82 to 1.67)
Hypertension2.19 (1.07 to 4.48)2.26 (1.22 to 4.19)
Waist circumference1.69 (0.88 to 3.21)
BMI0.87 (0.74 to 1.03)
Visceral fat1.48 (0.85 to 2.60)1.71 (1.21 to 2.40)
Hepatic fat0.84 (0.55 to 1.29)
Pericardial fat0.91 (0.56 to 1.48)
HDL0.92 (0.61 to 1.39)
Triglycerides1.20 (0.77 to 1.86)
Disposition index0.70 (0.44 to 1.12)
Insulin sensitivity index0.68 (0.35 to 1.29)
C.Any progression from prediabetes
Full model
Any progression from prediabetes
Reduced model
Age0.68 (0.40 to 1.17)1.13 (0.77 to 1.63)
Sex2.77 (0.92 to 8.32)0.98 (0.45 to 2.16)
Follow-up time1.36 (0.79 to 2.35)1.37 (0.87 to 2.14)
Hypertension2.02 (0.81 to 4.99)
Waist circumference1.16 (0.49 to 2.75)
Visceral fat1.44 (0.72 to 2.87)
Hepatic fat0.56 (0.35 to 0.92)0.57 (0.39 to 0.84)
Pericardial fat1.44 (0.78 to 2.64)
HDL0.85 (0.47 to 1.55)
Triglycerides0.86 (0.53 to 1.40)
Disposition index0.99 (0.58 to 1.70)
Insulin sensitivity index0.92 (0.31 to 2.72)
D.Any regression from prediabetes
Full model
Any regression from prediabetes
Reduced model
Age0.96 (0.60 to 1.55)0.87 (0.59 to 1.26)
Sex0.61 (0.24 to 1.55)1.13 (0.53 to 2.43)
Follow-up time0.81 (0.45 to 1.43)0.73 (0.44 to 1.22)
Hypertension0.35 (0.12 to 1.05)
Waist circumference1.06 (0.57 to 1.98)
Visceral fat0.61 (0.29 to 1.30)
Hepatic fat1.01 (0.58 to 1.74)
Pericardial fat0.76 (0.37 to 1.56)
HDL1.53 (0.86 to 2.72)
Triglycerides0.80 (0.42 to 1.53)
Disposition index3.73 (1.22 to 11.40)4.23 (1.57 to 11.40)
Insulin sensitivity index1.39 (0.52 to 3.73)
  • After adjusting for age, sex and duration of follow-up, hepatic fat attenuation (OR: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55 to 0.87)), visceral fat area (OR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.06 to 1.74)) and hypertension (OR: 2.21 (95% CI: 1.44 to 3.40)) were associated with any glycemic progression. Hepatic fat attenuation was associated with progression from prediabetes to T2DM, while visceral fat mass was associated with progression from NGT to prediabetes or T2DM. Disposition index was associated with regression from prediabetes to NGT (OR: 4.23 (95% CI: 1.57 to 11.40)).

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MASALA, Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.