Table 3

Baseline clinical features in the RIACE participants with valid information on vital status on 31 October 2015, stratified by age-adjusted filtration status

VariableNormofilteringHyperfilteringHypofilteringP value
n (%)12 306 (78.6)644 (4.1)2706 (17.3)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)86.3±13.6108.0±14.046.0±11.2
(60.0–129.2)(74.5–176.0)(4.1–59.9)
Deaths, n (%)2160 (17.6)169 (26.2)1273 (47.0)<0.0001
Age (years)64.9±9.967.5±11.473.8±8.6<0.0001
Gender, n (%)<0.0001
 Females5107 (41.5)294 (45.7)1353 (50.0)
 Males7199 (58.5)350 (54.3)1353 (50.0)
Smoking status, n (%)<0.0001
 Never6891 (56.0)368 (57.1)1590 (58.8)
 Former3413 (27.7)157 (24.4)837 (30.9)
 Current2002 (16.3)119 (18.5)279 (10.3)
Diabetes duration (years)12.4±9.711.9±9.817.2±11.1<0.0001
Age at diagnosis (years)52.6±11.055.6±12.256.6±12.0<0.0001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)58.6±16.259.6±18.860.7±16.9<0.0001
Antihyperglycemic Tx, n (%)<0.0001
 Lifestyle1767 (14.4)93 (14.4)253 (9.3)
 Non-insulin7791 (63.3)405 (62.9)1423 (52.6)
 Insulin2748 (22.3)146 (22.7)1030 (38.1)
BMI (kg/m2)29.0±5.128.5±5.729.1±5.10.021
Waist circumference (cm)102.5±10.4101.4±11.6102.6±10.20.029
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.53±0.951.51±1.411.77±1.05<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.78±0.974.77±1.054.79±1.050.957
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.30±0.351.36±0.371.24±0.36<0.0001
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.49±0.943.41±1.023.55±0.990.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.80±0.842.74±0.842.75±0.870.012
Dyslipidemia, n (%)10 120 (82.2)476 (73.9)2260 (83.5)<0.0001
Lipid-lowering Tx, n (%)5524 (44.9)237 (36.8)1477 (54.6)<0.0001
Systolic BP (mm Hg)137.8±17.8136.6±16.8139.7±19.2<0.0001
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)79.1±9.377.9±9.277.5±9.9<0.0001
Pulse pressure (mm Hg)58.7±15.458.7±14.462.2±17.1<0.0001
Hypertension, n (%)10 378 (84.3)521 (80.9)2551 (94.3)<0.0001
Antihypertensive Tx, n (%)8265 (67.2)421 (65.4)2386 (88.2)<0.0001
RAS blocker Tx, n (%)6968 (56.6)341 (53.0)2031 (75.1)<0.0001
Antiplatelet Tx, n (%)4507 (36.6)260 (40.4)1481 (54.7)<0.0001
Anticoagulant Tx, n (%)409 (3.3)16 (2.5)244 (9.0)<0.0001
Albuminuria (mg/24 hours)47.3±210.977.0±678.7185.0±504.1<0.0001
Albuminuria categories, n (%)<0.0001
 Normoalbuminuria9532 (77.5)452 (70.2)1476 (54.5)
 Microalbuminuria2425 (19.7)174 (27.0)866 (32.0)
 Macroalbuminuria349 (2.8)18 (2.8)364 (13.5)
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)73.0±14.943.5±8.8127.0±55.6<0.0001
DR, n (%)<0.0001
 No9827 (79.9)518 (80.4)1844 (68.1)
 Non-advanced1440 (11.7)72 (11.7)435 (16.1)
 Advanced1039 (8.4)54 (8.4)427 (15.8)
CVD, n (%)
 Any2453 (19.9)110 (17.1)1057 (39.1)<0.0001
 Myocardial infarction1173 (9.5)51 (7.9)518 (19.1)<0.0001
 Coronary revascularization1090 (8.9)39 (6.1)450 (16.6)<0.0001
 Any coronary event1628 (13.2)68 (10.6)700 (25.9)<0.0001
 Stroke336 (2.7)18 (2.8)159 (5.9)<0.0001
 Carotid revascularization548 (4.5)13 (2.0)295 (10.9)<0.0001
 Any cerebrovascular event841 (6.8)28 (4.3)423 (15.6)<0.0001
 Ulcer/gangrene/amputation341 (2.8)20 (3.1)195 (7.2)<0.0001
 Lower limb revascularization273 (2.2)7 (1.1)170 (6.3)<0.0001
 Any peripheral event548 (4.5)24 (3.7)311 (11.5)<0.0001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Any2053 (16.7)130 (20.2)604 (22.3)<0.0001
 COPD435 (3.5)40 (6.2)199 (7.4)<0.0001
 Chronic liver disease1045 (8.5)55 (8.5)261 (9.6)0.154
 Cancer757 (6.2)53 (8.2)221 (8.2)<0.0001
  • Values are mean±SD or median (IQR) for continuous variables, and number of cases (percentage) for categorical variables.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DR, diabetic retinopathy; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; RAS, renin-angiotensin system; RIACE, Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events; Tx, treatment.