Table 1

Characteristics of study population according to tertiles (T1–T3) of averaged ba-PWV

No.Tertiles of ba-PWV
Total (n=6122)T1 (n=2042)T2 (n=2041)T3 (n=2039)P trend
Person-years of follow-up61223.8 (2.3)3.4 (2.2)3.7 (2.3)4.2 (2.4)
Ba-PWV (cm/s)61221338 (1210–1521)1161 (1090–1210)1338 (1295–1391)1627 (1522–1808)
T2DM, n (%)6122599 (9.8)81 (4.0)196 (9.6)322 (15.8)<0.001
Age (years)612251.0 (13.0)42.7 (9.4)49.2 (9.3)61.1 (12.7)<0.001
Male, n (%)61224216 (68.9)1085 (53.1)1571 (77.0)1560 (76.5)<0.001
Married, n (%)57575633 (97.8)1781 (94.7)1895 (99.1)1957 (99.7)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)610325.5 (3.2)24.7 (3.4)25.8 (3.0)26.0 (3.1)<0.001
Smoking status6122<0.001
 Never3570 (58.3)1393 (68.2)1124 (55.1)1053 (51.6)
 Past1309 (21.4)285 (14.0)458 (22.4)566 (27.8)
 Current1243 (20.3)364 (17.8)459 (22.5)420 (20.6)
Drinking status61220.318
 Never3222 (52.6)1195 (58.5)913 (44.7)1114 (54.6)
 Past728 (11.9)225 (11.0)266 (13.0)237 (11.6)
 Current2172 (35.5)622 (30.5)862 (42.2)688 (33.7)
SBP (mm Hg)6056121.9 (15.4)112.5 (12.4)121.4 (12.5)131.5 (14.9)<0.001
DBP (mm Hg)605076.6 (9.6)71.7 (8.5)77.7 (8.7)80.4 (9.5)<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)61222036 (33.26)213 (10.4)574 (28.1)1249 (61.3)<0.001
TC (mmol/L)61165.00 (4.40–5.65)4.80 (4.25–5.42)5.07 (4.46–5.71)5.13 (4.50–5.80)<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)61163.12 (0.77)2.98 (0.76)3.19 (0.75)3.19 (0.78)<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)61171.34 (0.32)1.39 (0.33)1.31 (0.30)1.34 (0.32)<0.001
TG (mmol/L)61171.37 (0.95–2.02)1.14 (0.78–1.70)1.48 (1.06–2.15)1.51 (1.06–2.11)<0.001
hs-CRP (mg/dl)10070.64 (0.20–1.56)0.48 (0.13–1.22)0.64 (0.21–1.56)0.98 (0.30–2.05)<0.001
ALT (U/L)607220.6 (15.0–29.0)18.6 (13.7–27.0)22.0 (16.5–31.0)21.0 (16.0–28.8)0.001
AST (U/L)606520.4 (17.3–24.4)19.0 (16.1–23.00)20.9 (17.7–25.0)21.3 (18.5–25.0)<0.001
FPG (mmol/L)60735.34 (0.53)5.16 (0.48)5.35 (0.52)5.50 (0.53)<0.001
2 hour_PPG (mmol/L)55266.29 (1.39)5.83 (1.21)6.25 (1.35)6.77 (1.43)<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)14005.46 (0.35)5.39 (0.34)5.44 (0.35)5.58 (0.35)<0.001
Family history of T2DM, n (%)6122723 (12.0)272 (13.3)267 (13.1)184 (9.0)0.480
  • Values with normal distribution were expressed as mean (SD); categorical variables as number and its proportion; value described as median and interquartiles due to the skewed distribution; T1–T3, averaged ba-PWV referred to the mean values of ba-PWV-left and ba-PWV-right, and they were divided into three tertiles: ≤1256 cm/s, 1257–1448 cm/s, >1448 cm/s; p trend, statistically significant difference across ba-PWV tertiles.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; Ba-PWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; No., number of participants with each variable; PPG, postprandial plasma glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; TG, triglycerides.