Table 1

Demographic and health characteristics of the subsample of 283 children and adolescents (7–19 years) from the Yale Pediatric NAFLD Cohort

VariableMean or count
(SD or %)
VariableMean or count
(SD or %)
Age (years)13.3 (3.02)Fasting glucose (mg/dL)90.3 (8.28)
Sex, male129 (45.6%)Fasting insulin (µU/mL)32.8 (23.4)
Race/ethnicityHOMA-IR7.43 (5.55)
 Non-Hispanic white68 (24.0%)Whole body insulin sensitivity index1.98 (1.32)
 African–American104 (36.7%)Insulinogenic index4.98 (4.61)
 Hispanic98 (34.6%)Disposition index7.75 (6.37)
 Asian/Other13 (4.6%)Triglycerides (mg/dL)104 (62.7)
BMI z-score2.01 (0.726)HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)43.7 (10.6)
Hepatic fat fraction (%)7.14 (9.80)LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)91.4 (31.5)
VAT ratio0.111 (0.044)Total cholesterol (mg/dL)155 (37.2)
Deep SAT ratio0.283 (0.069)NAFLD100 (35.3%)
Superficial SAT ratio0.273 (0.066)Type 2 diabetes mellitus7 (2.5%)
ALT (U/L)25.5 (20.9)IGT44 (15.5%)
Systolic BP (mm Hg)117 (10.4)IFG18 (6.4%)
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)66.8 (7.54)Both IGT and IFG6 (2%)
  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; SAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue; VAT, visceral adipose tissue.