Table 1

Baseline characteristics among study participants (mean±SD)

Self-selected diet
(n=32)
DSNS Bkfst/AS
(n=24)
DSNS Bkfst/PBS
(n=25)
Total
(n=81)
Gender, % male56586459
Age (years)61±862±1064±1062±9
BMI30±432±433±4*§32±4
Waist circumference (cm)41±442±443±4†42±4
Duration of diabetes (years)8±611±814±10*11±8
Measured A1C (%)7.9±0.87.8±0.77.8±0.77.8±0.7
Oral antihyperglycemic medications, number of doses/day2.2±0.92.7±1.12.5±1.02.4±1.0
 Metformin (%)87879690
 Thiazolidinones (%)6404
 Sulfonylurea (%)47585653
Ethnicity, % Hispanic1221412
Race (%)
 White72677270
 Black25172021
 Asian31205
 American Indian0401
 Other0082
  • Baseline differences between groups are as follows:

  • *Significantly different versus self-selected diet group, p<0.05.

  • †Different versus self-selected diet group, p>0.05 and p<0.2.

  • ‡Different versus DSNS Bkfst/AS group, p>0.05 and p<0.2

  • Bkfst/AS, breakfast/afternoon snack; Bkfst/PBS, breakfast/prebed snack; BMI, body mass index; DSNS, diabetes-specific nutritional shake.