Table 2

Glycemic response results (mean±SEM)

Variable and treatment groupsBaseline
(5±0.1 days)
Intervention
(6±0.1 days)
Change versus baselineP value* versus baselineP value†
versus self-selected diet
Preprandial (fasting) glucose (mg/dL)
 Self-selected diet184.3±8.0177.4±7.5−6.9±4.00.1193
 DSNS Bkfst/AS186.3±12.8182.0±12.2−4.4±5.40.23680.5713
 DSNS Bkfst/PBS173.5±9.8168.3±9.8−5.2±5.40.27140.7770
Breakfast, positive AUC (mg/dL*min, 0–120 min)‡
 Self-selected diet4237±5143074±364−1162±4220.0100
 DSNS Bkfst/AS3258±5291551±198−1708±4960.00020.0083
 DSNS Bkfst/PBS3928±5961978±301−1950±5820.00270.0686
Breakfast, adjusted peak value (mg/dL)‡
 Self-selected diet66.2±6.851.7±5.1−14±60.0195
 DSNS Bkfst/AS52.7±7.227.9±3.1−25±70.00150.0025
 DSNS Bkfst/PBS57.5±7.730.8±4.0−27±80.00230.0098
Daytime§ variability (MAGE, mg/dL)
 Self-selected diet106.5±5.2100.5±4.1−6.0±3.60.1018
 DSNS Bkfst/AS104.5±6.598.6±6.9−5.9±4.60.21450.9586
 DSNS Bkfst/PBS99.5±6.088.8±5.9−10.7±5.90.08030.3370
Nocturnal variability (MAGE, mg/dL)
 Self-selected diet63.6±5.461.4±4.5−2.2±4.00.5936
 DSNS Bkfst/AS70.8±8.859.5±7.2−11.3±4.50.02040.4623
 DSNS Bkfst/PBS60.7±5.154.9±4.2−5.9±4.20.17930.7445
  • *Paired t-test or signed-rank test if a variable was declared non-normal by Shapiro-Wilk test (p<0.001).

  • †Analysis of covariance. The significance level was adjusted for multiple comparisons of treatment group groups using Tukey-Kramer p value adjustments.

  • ‡Begins with the first time point collected after meal and continues until 120 min after meal.

  • §Daytime (starting from time of waking to time subject went to bed); nocturnal (starting from time subject went to bed to time of waking).5

  • AUC, area under the curve; Bkfst/AS, breakfast/afternoon snack; Bkfst/PBS, breakfast/prebed snack; DSNS, diabetes-specific nutritional shake; MAGE, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion.