Table 2

Vascular health characteristics of study subjects at baseline

VariableT1D interventionT1D controlT1D allHistorical controls
N20214140
Blood pressure (BP)
Systolic BP (mm Hg)114 (10)115 (10)115 (10)NA
Systolic BP z-score0.17 (0.93)0.32 (0.89)0.25 (0.90)
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)59 (4)57 (7)58 (6)
Diastolic BP z-score−0.50 (0.39)−0.72 (0.61)−0.61 (0.52)***
Pulse wave velocity (PWV)
 Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s)5.7 (0.9)5.4 (0.8)5.6 (0.8)***4.0 (0.8)
 Carotid-radial PWV (m/s)7.4 (1.4)7.2 (0.8)7.3 (1.2)***6.3 (1.1)
Common carotid artery
 Intima-media thickness (mm)0.41 (0.05)0.41 (0.04)0.41 (0.04)0.42 (0.06)
 Lumen diameter (mm)5.23 (0.38)5.09 (0.37)5.16 (0.38)*5.39 (0.46)
 Compliance (%/10 mm Hg)2.38 (0.49)2.51 (0.38)2.45 (0.43)***3.30 (0.76)
 Stiffness (no unit)4.58 (1.02)4.24 (0.70)4.40 (0.87)4.21 (1.09)
Radial artery
 Intima-media thickness (mm)0.14 (0.02)0.14 (0.03)0.14 (0.02)0.14 (0.02)
 Intima-media-adventitia thickness (mm)0.21 (0.03)0.21 (0.04)0.21 (0.03)0.22 (0.03)
 Lumen diameter (mm)1.76 (0.31)1.64 (0.23)1.70 (0.28)1.78 (0.30)
Brachial artery
 Intima-media thickness (mm)0.14 (0.02)0.14 (0.02)0.14 (0.02)0.13 (0.02)
 Intima-media-adventitia thickness (mm)0.25 (0.04)0.26 (0.05)0.26 (0.04)0.24 (0.04)
 Lumen diameter (mm)2.98 (0.47)3.00 (0.32)2.99 (0.39)2.98 (0.54)
Femoral artery
 Intima-media thickness (mm)0.24 (0.04)0.26 (0.06)0.25 (0.05)0.26 (0.05)
 Intima-media-adventitia thickness (mm)0.46 (0.07)0.50 (0.08)0.48 (0.08)0.49 (0.08)
 Lumen diameter (mm)6.23 (0.68)6.26 (0.74)6.24 (0.70)6.69 (1.13)
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) or as count.

  • *P<0.05, ***p<0.001 between T1D all and historical controls, other comparisons between historical controls and T1D all as well as between T1D intervention vs T1D control were statistically non-significant (p>0.05).

  • NA, not assessed; T1D, type 1 diabetes.