Table 1

Characteristics of studies identifying significant risk factor for patients with diabetes

First authorYearTypes of diabetesSample sizeCountryStudy designVariables (n)
Bennett 312012T1DM and T2DM1 792 826USARetrospective cohort study117
Caughey 322017T1DM and T2DM848AustraliaRetrospective cohort study93
Chen162012T1DM and T2DM30 139USARetrospective cohort study3716
Chen332017T1DM and T2DM115 221USARetrospective cohort study2912
Chin341998T1DM and T2DM1376USARetrospective cohort study40
Collins352017T2DM63 237USARetrospective cohort study—development of risk prediction model1514
Eby362015T2DM52 070USARetrospective cohort study3914
Emons372016T1DM and T2DM4476USARetrospective cohort study2012
Enomoto142017T2DM1 080 580USACase–control study2115
Jiang382005T1DM and T2DM130 751USARetrospective cohort study30
Karunakaran392018T1DM and T2DM17 284USARetrospective cohort study—development of risk prediction model4827
Lin402015T2DM161 174USARetrospective cohort study15Not reported*
Lipska412014T1DM and T2DM33 952 331USARetrospective cohort study—12-year trend analysis24Not reported*
McCoy432017T1DM and T2DM342 186USARetrospective cohort study107
McCoy422018T1DM and T2DM11 161USARetrospective cohort study278
Nishino442015T1DM and T2DM174 932UKRetrospective cohort study2613
Raval452015T2DM202 496USARetrospective cohort study2110
Robbins152006T1DM and T2DM88 776USARetrospective cohort study115
Rubin102016T1DM and T2DM17 248USARetrospective cohort study—development of risk prediction model4610
Rubin92018T1DM and T2DM42 800USARetrospective cohort study—development of risk prediction model157
Sonmez302017T1DM and T2DM102 694USACase–control study33
Takahashi462015T2DM5731USARetrospective cohort study40
Wei472013T2DM1949USARetrospective cohort study72
  • The variables are significant in multivariable analysis.

  • *These studies were only included in the systematic review, as statistical significance was not formally evaluated and they did not provide sufficient information to be included in the meta-analysis.

  • T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.