Table 1

Clinical characteristics of 42 patients with NDM and 28 patients with diabetes <3 y with negative GAD65 and IA-2A

Onset age0–6 m6–12 m1–2 y2–3 yTotalSignificance
(p value)
Cases (n)42*910970
Male/female28/145/47/37/247/230.823
Gestational age (w, mean±SD)38.00±1.9938.33±1.1238.40±1.0738.00±1.1238.10±1.680.884
Birth weight (kg, mean±SD)2.47±0.473.02±0.323.24±0.413.06±0.532.73±0.550.000†
SGA (%)45.24 (19/42)22.22 (2/9)0.00 (0/10)0.00 (0/9)30.00 (21/70)
At diagnosis
Age (mean±SD)55.16±46.72 d9.0±1.89 m18.00±3.65 m29.33±4.69 m
FPG (mmol/L, mean±SD)27.63±9.5129.61±4.8327.53±5.7127.58±1.5727.86±7.840.829
C peptide (μg/L, mean±SD)0.33±0.390.20±0.180.09±0.040.18±0.120.26±0.320.475
HbA1c (%, mean±SD)8.06±3.0010.29±2.2012.00±1.3312.28±2.119.52±3.140.000‡
DKA (%)28.57 (12/42)55.56 (5/9)60.00 (6/10)77.78 (7/9)42.86 (30/70)0.02
Combined with other problems (n)Anemia (6)
Dysmorphic craniofacial features (3)
Congenital laryngeal wheezing (2)
Developmental delay (3)
Cutaneous hemangioma (1)
Left testicular hydrocele (1)
Ventricular septal defect (1)
Macroglossia (1)
Cutaneous hemangioma (1)
Auricular malformation (1)
Genetic abnormality (n)KCNJ11 (21)
ABCC8 (3)
Chromosome abnormality (6)
INS (1)
GCK (3)
KCNJ11 (1)
Chromosome abnormality (1)
INS (1)
INS (1)KCNJ11 (22)
ABCC8 (3)
Chromosome abnormality (7)
INS (3)
GCK (3)
  • *Case 37 was excluded from this table because of insulin resistance.

  • †The p value of 0–6 m vs 6–12 m, 0–6 m vs 1–2 y, 0–6 m vs 2–3 y, 6–12 m vs 1–2 y, 6–12 m vs 2–3 y, 1–2 y vs 2–3 y was 0.002, 0.000, 0.002, 0.22, 0.929, 0.422, respectively.

  • ‡The p value of 0–6 m vs 6–12 m, 0–6 m vs 1–2 y, 0–6 m vs 2–3 y, 6–12 m vs 1–2 y, 6–12 m vs 2–3 y, 1–2 y vs 2–3 y was 0.042, 0.000, 0.001, 0.053, 0.068, 0.732, respectively.

  • d, day; DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; m, month; NDM, neonatal diabetes mellitus; SGA, small for gestational age; w, week; y, year.