Table 1

Clinical characteristics of Amish and NHANES subjects (mean±SD or % affected)

Amish
2010–2018
NHANES
2013–2014
Amish versus NHANES*
n=5377Men, n=2291Women, n=3086Age-adjusted p value†n=2571Men, n=1231Women, n=1340Age-adjusted p value†Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted p value*‡
Age (years)43.7 (16.8)45.4 (16.4)42.5 (16.9)<0.000150.0 (19.3)49.1 (19.4)50.9 (19.2)0.02<0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.7 (5.0)26.3 (4.2)27.1 (42.5)<0.000129.0 (7.1)28.6 (6.3)29.3 (7.8)0.01<0.0001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)85.8 (16.4)87.2 (14.9)84.7 (17.3)0.003106.2 (31.1)108.7 (32.8)103.8 (29.3)0.004<0.0001
HbA1c (%)5.6 (0.6)5.6 (0.6)5.5 (0.6)0.055.6 (0.9)5.6 (0.9)5.6 (0.9)0.09<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure
(mm Hg)
115.2 (17.5)115.6 (15.1)114.9 (19.1)0.03122.1 (17.6)123.4 (16.4)121.0 (18.5)<0.0001<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure
(mm Hg)
70.6 (9.8)72.1 (9.8)69.5 (9.7)<0.000168.9 (12.4)69.9 (12.8)67.9 (12.0)0.0001<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)210.7 (51.1)205.9 (46.0)214.2 (54.3)<0.0001188.1 (43.3)181.8 (40.8)193.9 (44.8)<0.0001<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) without APOB200.6 (41.6)197.4 (38.5)203.0 (43.6)<0.0001As aboveAs aboveAs aboveAs above<0.0001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)132.6 (46.6)134.9 (43.2)130.9 (48.9)0.09109.2 (35.5)106.7 (34.7)111.5 (36.2)0.02<0.0001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) without APOB122.4 (35.9)126.2 (34.6)119.6 (36.6)<0.0001As aboveAs aboveAs aboveAs above<0.0001
% diabetes (adj %§, adj %¶)3.3 (3.3, 3.2)3.5 (3.5, 3.3)3.1 (3.1, 3.1)0.8113.2 (13.1, 12.9)14.2 (14.1, 13.8)12.2 (12.2, 12.0)0.04<0.0001
% hypertension (adj %§, adj %¶)12.7 (12.7, 12.7)11.6 (11.6, 11.6)13.5 (13.5, 13.5)<0.000137.8 (37.8, 37.4)37.4 (37.4, 36.9)38.3 (38.3, 37.9)<0.0001<0.0001
% high total cholesterol (adj %§, adj %¶)26.2 (26.2, 26.2)23.0 (23.0, 23.1)28.5 (28.5, 28.5)<0.000135.7 (35.5, 35.6)35.5 (35.3, 35.3)35.9 (35.7, 35.8)0.3480.0003
% high LDL cholesterol (adj %§, adj %¶)25.3 (25.3, 25.2)26.4 (26.4, 26.5)24.4 (24.4, 24.3)0.64535.5 (33.4, 33.3)37.5 (34.9, 34.7)33.8 (32.1, 32.1)0.0090.0033
  • In the Amish, diabetes based on 3302 subjects. Hypertension, high LDL cholesterol and high cholesterol based on 5370, 5374, and 5374 subjects, respectively (see text).

  • In NHANES, diabetes based on 2444 subjects. Hypertension, high LDL cholesterol, and high total cholesterol based on 2403, 2527, and 2231 subjects, respectively (see text).

  • *P value calculated by logistic regression for categorical outcome or linear regression for continuous outcome, adjusting for age and sex. P value for age, adjusted for sex only. Bold values denote statistical significance at level 0.05.

  • †P value for sex difference calculated by logistic regression for binary outcome or linear regression for continuous outcome, adjusting for age. P value for age, adjusted for sex only. Bold values denote statistical significance at level 0.05.

  • ‡P values for differences between Amish and NHANES were unchanged from the values provided when additionally adjusted for body mass index, with the exception of % high total cholesterol (age- and sex-adjusted p=0.0003 changed to 0.002 with additional adjustment for BMI) and % high LDL cholesterol (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted p=0.0033 changed to 0.038 with additional adjustment for BMI).

  • §Prevalence adjusted for age and sex using Poisson regression.

  • ¶Prevalence adjusted for age, sex, and BMI using Poisson regression.

  • APOB, apolipoprotein B gene; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.