Table 3

Cox proportional hazard models for major amputation

Adjusted HR95% CIP value
Race/Ethnicity
 WhiteReference
 African American1.921.71 to 2.15<0.0001
 Hispanic1.090.84 to 1.410.6
 Native American1.811.26 to 2.610.001
 Other1.020.78 to 1.340.88
Age1.010.99 to 1.010.33
Male gender1.791.62 to 1.98<0.0001
Disability1.311.16 to 1.47<0.0001
County residence
 MetropolitanReference
 Non-metropolitan1.41.23 to 1.58<0.0001
Median income
 Q1Reference
 Q20.880.76 to 1.030.11
 Q30.750.63 to 0.900.001
 Q40.690.57 to 0.830.0001
Poverty
 <20%Reference
 ≥20%0.890.76 to 1.030.1
Low income subsidy1.341.19 to 1.51<0.0001
PAD2.952.55 to 3.41<0.0001
ESRD2.772.36 to 3.22<0.0001
Elixhauser Comorbidity Index1.010.99 to 1.020.64
DCSI1.191.14 to 1.24<0.0001
Insulin1.621.45 to 1.81<0.0001
Specialty for diagnosis
 Primary careReference
 Podiatry0.890.71 to 1.120.31
 Specialist1.461.20 to 1.760.0001
Place of diagnosis
 HospitalReference
 Emergency department0.850.68 to 1.070.16
 Outpatient0.30.27 to 0.34<0.0001
 Home health agency0.220.11 to 0.45<0.0001
 Skilled nursing facility0.50.38 to 0.66<0.0001
 Others0.290.26 to 0.34<0.0001
  • DCSI, Diabetes Complications Severity Index; ESRD, end stage renal disease; PAD, peripheral artery disease; Q, quartile.