Table 1

Subject characteristics

(n=13, 5♀8♂)
(n=10, 5♀5♂)
(n=13, 5♀8♂)
P value
(one-way ANOVA)
Age (year)60.8±10.968.2±8.159.8±9.70.11
BMI (kg/m2)26.0±3.329.1±7.031.7±5.5*0.03
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic blood pressure125±12124±14134±150.13
 Diastolic blood pressure72.0±670±1075±70.32
 Mean arterial pressure90±888±1095±80.17
Resting heart rate (beats per minute)60±874±13†73±10†<0.01
Body temperature (°C)36.5±0.337.1±0.4†36.9±0.5*<0.01
HbA1c (%)NA7.9±1.38.4±2.10.54
HbA1c (mmol/mol)(63.0±14.2)(68.3±23.1)0.54
Type of diabetes
 DM type 113
 DM type 2910
Duration of diabetes (years)18.4±8.223.6±11.2
Other medical condition/risk factors
 History of cardiovascular diseases013
 History of cerebrovascular diseases000
 Current smoker; ex-smoker0; 20; 50; 5
 Insulin injection047
 Non-insulin antidiabetic injection022
 Oral antidiabetic056
  • Data are presented in mean±SD.

  • *Significantly different from control group at p<0.05.

  • †Significantly different from control group at p<0.01.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; CON, control; DFU, diabetic foot ulcer; DM, diabetes mellitus; DNU, diabetic non-ulcer; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; NA, not applicable.