Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 378 253 eligible UK Biobank participants

<6% or
<42 mmol/mol
6%–6.4% or 42–47 mmol/mol≥6.5% or ≥48 mmol/mol
N349 82515 64812 780
Age at baseline assessment, years (median (IQR))57.0 (49.0 to 63.0)61.0 (56.0 to 65.0)61.0 (54.0 to 65.0)
Female (N %)189 945 (54.3)7401 (47.3)4644 (36.3)
Ethnicity
 White European336 172 (96.1)13 812 (88.3)11 288 (88.3)
 South Asian3845 (1.1)590 (3.8)627 (4.9)
 African Caribbean3535 (1.0)639 (4.1)399 (3.1)
 Mixed or other6273 (1.8)607 (3.9)466 (3.6)
Townsend deprivation index quintile
 Least deprived74 442 (21.3)2693 (17.2)1987 (15.5)
 Second least deprived73 142 (20.9)2853 (18.2)2162 (16.9)
 Median deprivation level71 721 (20.5)2914 (18.6)2337 (18.3)
 Second most deprived69 056 (19.7)3309 (21.1)2693 (21.1)
 Most deprived61 464 (17.6)3879 (24.8)3601 (28.2)
Smoking status
 Never smoker245 290 (70.1)9109 (58.2)7417 (58.0)
 Former smoker80 703 (23.1)4786 (30.6)4273 (33.4)
 1–9 CPD5144 (1.5)240 (1.5)141 (1.1)
 10–19 CPD10 107 (2.9)750 (4.8)453 (3.5)
 20–29 CPD6814 (1.9)580 (3.7)355 (2.8)
 30+ CPD1767 (0.5)183 (1.2)141 (1.1)
Alcohol use
 Daily or almost daily74 105 (21.2)2562 (16.4)1853 (14.5)
 Three or four times a week86 080 (24.6)2682 (17.1)1965 (15.4)
 Once or twice a week91 703 (26.2)3851 (24.6)3063 (24.0)
 One to three times a month38 642 (11.0)1991 (12.7)1684 (13.2)
 Special occasions only35 760 (10.2)2634 (16.8)2288 (17.9)
 Never23 535 (6.7)1928 (12.3)1927 (15.1)
Days per week spent doing moderate physical activity
 None43 485 (12.4)2573 (16.4)2585 (20.2)
 1–280 980 (23.1)3329 (21.3)2812 (22.0)
 3–453 350 (15.3)2278 (14.6)1766 (13.8)
 5+172 010 (49.2)7468 (47.7)5617 (44.0)
Days per week spent doing vigorous physical activity
 None122 655 (35.1)7073 (45.2)6287 (49.2)
 1–2108 371 (31.0)4164 (26.6)3158 (24.7)
 3–450 518 (14.4)1772 (11.3)1319 (10.3)
 5+68 281 (19.5)2639 (16.9)2016 (15.8)
Days per week walked for >10 min
 None7287 (2.1)504 (3.2)592 (4.6)
 1–231 086 (8.9)1523 (9.7)1279 (10.0)
 3–427 730 (7.9)1269 (8.1)1103 (8.6)
 5+283 722 (81.1)12 352 (78.9)9806 (76.7)
Days per week with intake of processed meats
 None32 903 (9.4)1161 (7.4)837 (6.6)
 <1108 194 (30.9)4294 (27.4)3053 (23.9)
 1101 933 (29.1)4626 (29.6)3744 (29.3)
 2–493 383 (26.7)4822 (30.8)4390 (34.4)
 5+13 412 (3.8)745 (4.8)756 (5.9)
Number of fruits or vegetables consumed per day
 None10 712 (3.1)685 (4.4)501 (3.9)
 1–261 487 (17.6)2831 (18.1)2325 (18.2)
 3–4102 465 (29.3)4527 (28.9)3742 (29.3)
 5+175, 161 (50.1)7605 (48.6)6212 (48.6)
 BMI at baseline, kg/m2 (median (IQR))26.4 (23.9 to 29.4)29.7 (26.7 to 33.5)30.8 (27.5 to 34.9)
 HbA1c at baseline, mmol/mol (median (IQR))34.7 (32.4 to 37.0)43.7 (42.7 to 45.2)56.6 (51.4 to 65.3)
Comorbidities reported at baseline
 Any cardiovascular disease40 841 (11.7)3660 (23.4)3446 (27.0)
 Type 1 diabetes43 (0.0)112 (0.7)1143 (8.9)
 Type 1 diabetes3277 (0.9)3693 (23.6)9089 (71.1)
Medications reported at baseline
 Metformin1258 (0.4)2049 (13.1)6611 (51.7)
 Other oral antidiabetic therapy409 (0.1)824 (5.3)3312 (25.9)
 Insulin257 (0.1)381 (2.4)3107 (24.3)
 Hormone replacement therapy14 517 (4.2)321 (2.1)222 (1.7)
 Oral contraceptives5631 (1.6)60 (0.4)92 (0.7)
  • BMI, body mass index in kilograms per square metre (kg/m2); CPD, cigarettes smoked per day; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin.