Table 2

Number of events and age-standardized incidence rates in the UK Biobank population for 16 different cancers by HbA1c category

<6% or <42 mmol/mol6%–6.4% or 42–47 mmol/mol≥6.5% or ≥48 mmol/mol
NRate/1000 PY
(95% CI)
NRate/1000 PY
(95% CI)
NRate/1000 PY
(95% CI)
Any malignant cancer*19 0058.65 (8.54 to 8.77)125610.69 (10.04 to 11.28)9119.89 (9.23 to 10.49)
Primary outcomes
 Prostate (C61) †41084.09 (3.96 to 4.21)2383.64 (3.11 to 4.13)1812.84 (2.44 to 3.24)
 Premenopausal breast (C50) ‡10061.11 (1.04 to 1.19)50.38 (0.07 to 0.75)131.09 (0.54 to 1.67)
 Postmenopausal breast (C50) ‡25953.34 (3.08 to 3.62)1346.82 (1.96 to 16.07)843.04 (1.92 to 4.92)
 Colorectal (C18–C20)22071.01 (0.97 to 1.05)1511.27 (1.04 to 1.49)1181.34 (1.07 to 1.62)
 Lung (C34)13770.63 (0.60 to 0.67)1641.37 (1.12 to 1.59)810.85 (0.66 to 1.05)
Secondary outcomes
 Esophageal (C15)3940.18 (0.17 to 0.20)390.31 (0.22 to 0.42)400.43 (0.32 to 0.57)
 Stomach (C16)2740.13 (0.11 to 0.14)330.25 (0.17 to 0.35)200.25 (0.15 to 0.37)
 Pancreatic (C25)4970.23 (0.21 to 0.25)490.46 (0.33 to 0.63)540.59 (0.43 to 0.76)
 Melanoma (C43)11720.53 (0.50 to 0.56)630.52 (0.39 to 0.66)400.43 (0.30 to 0.56)
 Uterus (C54–55) ‡5630.47 (0.43 to 0.51)491.00 (0.72 to 1.34)290.89 (0.59 to 1.22)
 Ovarian (C56) ‡4390.37 (0.34 to 0.41)170.40 (0.18 to 0.62)150.48 (0.25 to 0.75)
 Kidney (C64)5040.23 (0.21 to 0.25)420.39 (0.27 to 0.51)410.44 (0.31 to 0.56)
 Bladder (C67)3990.19 (0.17 to 0.20)300.21 (0.14 to 0.29)400.42 (0.30 to 0.56)
 Central nervous system (C71–72)3660.17 (0.15 to 0.18)270.27 (0.17 to 0.38)140.16 (0.08 to 0.25)
 Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (C82–85)8300.38 (0.36 to 0.41)620.49 (0.35 to 0.61)380.44 (0.32 to 0.59)
 Multiple myeloma (C90)3190.15 (0.13 to 0.16)190.15 (0.08 to 0.22)170.18 (0.11 to 0.26)
 Leukemia (C91–94)4850.22 (0.20 to 0.24)420.23 (0.10 to 0.39)230.13 (0.03 to 0.25)
  • Standardized to the UK Biobank population, percentile CIs were obtained via 500 bootstrap replications.

  • *Excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (C44).

  • †Males only.

  • ‡Females only.

  • HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; PY, person-years.