Table 1

Characteristics of patients (N=13 346)

CharacteristicsFinding*
Age, years, mean (95% CI)60.2 (60.1 to 60.3)
Sex
 Male8773 (65.7)
 Female4573 (34.3)
Ethnic background
 White11 642 (87.2)
 Mixed78 (0.6)
 South Asian973 (7.3)
 Black390 (2.9)
 Chinese39 (0.3)
 Others224 (1.7)
Region of UKB assessment center
 England11 963 (89.6)
 Scotland816 (6.1)
 Wales567 (4.3)
Townsend index, mean (95% CI)−0.45 (−0.51 to −0.39)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (95% CI)31.7 (31.6 to 31.8)
Obesity7573 (56.7)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg, mean (95% CI)143.1 (142.8 to 143.4)
Hypertension7724 (57.9)
Smoking status
 Never5910 (44.3)
 Previous6002 (45.0)
 Current1434 (10.7)
Level of physical activity
 Low4757 (35.6)
 Moderate4937 (37.0)
 High3652 (27.4)
HbA1c, %, mean (95% CI)7.21 (7.19 to 7.23)
Duration of type 2 diabetes, years, mean (95% CI)8.2 (8.1 to 8.4)
Therapeutic regimen of type 2 diabetes
 Monotherapy7559 (56.6)
 Combination therapy5787 (43.4)
Antidiabetic administrations
 Metformin11 175 (83.7)
 Sulfonylurea4395 (32.9)
 Glitazone1542 (11.6)
 Meglitinide111 (0.8)
 Other oral antidiabetics46 (0.3)
 Insulin2772 (20.8)
Habitual sleep duration per day
 ≤6 hours3728 (27.9)
 7–8 hours7755 (58.1)
 ≥9 hours1863 (14.0)
 Snoring6099 (45.7)
 Frequent daytime sleepiness975 (7.3)
Risk of OSA
 Low7778 (58.3)
 High5568 (41.7)
Frequency of insomnia
 Never/rarely/sometimes8574 (64.2)
 Usually4772 (35.8)
  • *Data are presented as number (percentage) of patients unless otherwise indicated.

  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; UKB, UK Biobank.