Table 3

ORs of diabetes according to any two different levels of HOMA-%β, HOMA-IR, postpartum BMI, and gestational diabetes

Factor 1Factor 2Participants (n)Cases (n)ORs (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
HOMA-%β*BMI (kg/m2)
 ≥74.7<24639411
 <74.7<24537185.51 (1.85 to 16.4)3.89 (1.27 to 11.8)
 ≥74.724–27.9378125.21 (1.67 to 16.3)3.73 (1.17 to 11.9)
 <74.724–27.91592225.6 (8.66 to 75.5)18.9 (6.15 to 58.5)
 ≥74.7≥282072016.9 (5.72 to 50.2)12.8 (4.14 to 39.4)
 <74.7≥28481787.2 (27.7 to 274)62.5 (18.4 to 212)
HOMA-IR†BMI (kg/m2)
 <2.79<2410721311
 ≥2.79<2410497.81 (3.25 to 18.8)11.5 (4.43 to 30.0)
 <2.7924–27.9375204.54 (2.24 to 9.23)4.12 (1.96 to 8.64)
 ≥2.7924–27.916214 7.74 (3.5716.8)7.07 (3.10 to 16.1)
 <2.79≥2896109.46 (4.03 to 22.207.09 (2.85 to 17.7)
 ≥2.79≥281592717.0 (8.55 to 33.9)18.5 (8.68 to 39.3)
HOMA-%βGDM
 ≥74.7No530911
 <74.7No17510.33 (0.04 to 2.65)0.62 (0.07 to 5.31)
 ≥74.7Yes694272.35 (1.10 to 5.04)3.46 (1.03 to 11.6)
 <74.7Yes569566.36 (3.11 to 13.0)20.3 (6.15 to 66.9)
HOMA-IRGDM
 <2.79No531211
 ≥2.79No174812.8 (2.70 to 61.0)6.57 (1.31 to 32.9)
 <2.79Yes10124111.1 (2.67 to 46.0)23.0 (4.19 to 126)
 ≥2.79Yes2514253.3 (12.8 to 222)64.2 (11.1 to 370)
HOMA-%βHOMA-IR
 ≥74.7<2.79826711
 <74.7<2.79717366.13 (2.71 to 13.9)6.86 (2.91 to 16.1)
 ≥74.7≥2.79398299.28 (4.02 to 21.4)4.33 (1.78 to 10.5)
 <74.7≥2.792721414 (128 to 1342)285 (77.9 to 1041)
  • Model 1 adjusted for age; model 2 adjusted for age, education, family income, family history of diabetes, current smoking, passive smoking, current alcohol drinking, leisure-time physical activity, sleeping time, energy consumption, fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate consumption, sweetened beverage drinking, weight gain during pregnancy, postpartum time, lactation duration, lactation intensity, gestational diabetes status, and body mass index, other than the variables for stratification.

  • *The lowest quartile of HOMA-%β (<74.7) was defined as β-cell dysfunction.

  • †The highest quartile of HOMA-IR (≥2.79) was defined as insulin resistance.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; HOMA-%β, homeostatic model assessment of β-cell secretory function; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance.