Table 1

Characteristics of women with and without GDM

Non-GDMGDMP value
Number of participants7051263
Age at delivery (years)29.7±2.8330.1±3.500.008
Age at baseline (years)35.4±3.2332.4±3.52<0.001
Duration after delivery (years)5.74±1.192.29±0.88<0.001
Prepregnancy weight (kg)55.8±8.2159.4±9.14<0.001
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)18.3±6.6716.8±5.99<0.001
Prepregnancy BMI (km/m2)21.4±2.9723.1±3.32<0.001
Postpartum BMI (kg/m2)22.9±3.6824.2±3.93<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)75.8±8.2680.6±9.47<0.001
Body fat (%)30.8±5.8433.1±5.82<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.23±0.525.38±0.97<0.001
2-hour glucose (mmol/L)6.14±1.417.08±2.49<0.001
Serum fasting insulin8.86 (6.27–11.6)6.91 (4.76–10.2)<0.001
HOMA-IR2.03 (1.44–2.79)1.61 (1.08–2.51)<0.001
HOMA-%β104 (74.7–146)81.8 (54.3–123)<0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)35±338±8<0.001
HbA1c (%)5.3±0.25.6±0.7<0.001
Education (%)<0.001
 <13 years10.422.5
 13–16 years75.570.1
 ≥16 years14.27.4
Income (%)<0.001
 ¥<5000/month5.427.5
 ¥5000–8000/month15.536.9
 ¥≥8000 yuan/month79.135.6
Family history of diabetes (%)27.135.7<0.001
Current smoking (%)4.02.00.355
Passive smoking (%)55.253.80.572
Current alcohol drinker (%)32.121.8<0.001
Leisure-time physical activity (%)<0.001
 0 min/day61.778.8
 1–29 min/day33.819.1
 ≥30 min/day4.52.1
Lactation intensity (%)
 Exclusive formula13.614.5
 Mixed feeding44.442.6
 Exclusive feeding42.042.9
Lactation duration (months)9.88±7.068.70±6.23<0.01
Sleeping time (hours/day)7.48±0.957.81±1.06<0.01
Energy consumption (kcal/day)*1627±3811676±4360.01
Fiber (g/day)11.6±4.4212.2±4.750.01
Fat, % of energy31.1±5.6533.5±6.34<0.001
Carbohydrate, % of energy52.3±6.8149.5±7.30<0.001
Protein, % of energy16.6±2.6217.0±2.780.006
Sweetened beverage drink (%)77.975.50.223
  • *Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day 24-hour food records.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HOMA-%β, homeostatic model assessment of β-cell secretory function; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance.