Table 4

ORs of postpartum diabetes according to different levels of GDM, BMI, HOMA-%β and HOMA-IR

Non-GDMGDM
BMI<24BMI 24.0–27.9BMI≥28BMI<24BMI 24.0–27.9BMI≥28
HOMA-%β
 ≥74.711.44 (0.23 to 9.17)7.22 (1.48 to 35.2)0.78 (0.07 to 9.24)8.53 (1.71 to 42.7)27.5 (5.64 to 134)
 <74.70.78 (0.08 to 7.74)–*–*9.45 (2.63 to 44.0)45.6 (9.40 to 221)172 (34.1 to 869)
HOMA-IR
 <2.791–*–*8.19 (1.37 to 48.8)38.8 (6.68 to 226)65.6 (10.6 to 407)
 ≥2.795.56 (0.74 to 41.8)5.52 (0.69 to 44.2)18.3 (3.06 to 109)114 (16.9 to 772)60.1 (9.69 to 373)151 (25.6 to 898)
  • All analyses adjusted for age, education, family income, family history of diabetes, current smoking, passive smoking, current alcohol drinking, leisure-time physical activity, sleeping time, energy consumption, fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate consumption, sweetened beverage drinking, weight gain during pregnancy, lactation duration, lactation intensity, and postpartum time. All p values for interaction are >0.1.

  • *No incident cases were found.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; HOMA-%β, homeostatic model assessment of β-cell secretory function; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance.