Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants in the study (N=167)

Group 1
(n=74)
Group 2
(n=75)
Group 3
(n=18)
P value*
Age (years), mean (SD)50.8 (6.1)50.3 (5.1)53.6 (7.5)0.09
Gender, male, n (%)41 (55.4)41 (54.7)10 (55.6)0.99
Hypertension, n (%)29 (39.2)51 (68.0)15 (83.3)<0.001
HbA1c (%), mean (SD)5.75 (0.37)8.18 (1.90)9.39 (1.71)<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years), mean (SD)04.24 (6.76)12.33 (7.14)<0.001
Axial length (mm), mean (SD)23.58 (0.93)23.50 (0.84)23.35 (0.99)0.59
  • Data are expressed as numbers (percentages) for categorical variables or means (SDs) for continuous variables.

  • Bold values are statistically significant.

  • *Based on χ2 or Wilcoxon test (categorical), or independent sample t-tests, comparing characteristics among participants across all three groups.

  • HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin.