GD (n=153) | Control (n=153) | Crude P value* | Adjusted P value* | |

RBP-4 (μg/mL) | 20.1±5.1 | 19.7±5.0 | 0.562 | 0.204 |

19.5 (16.8, 23.2) | 19.0 (15.9, 22.7) | |||

Leptin (ng/mL) | 7.3±7.3 | 8.1±7.1 | 0.074 | 0.341 |

4.6 (2.8, 9.4) | 5.9 (3.6, 9.9) | |||

Adiponectin, HMW (μg/mL) | 15.0±7.5 | 17.6±8.0 | 0.002 | 0.006 |

14.3 (10.1, 18.8) | 16.3 (12.1, 21.6) | |||

Adiponectin, total (μg/mL) | 33.2±15.0 | 36.3±15.8 | 0.073 | 0.071 |

31.7 (23.5, 42.6) | 33.1 (24.7, 46.1) | |||

HMW/total ratio | 0.46±0.15 | 0.50±0.14 | 0.003 | 0.032 |

0.44 (0.36, 0.51) | 0.49 (0.41, 0.56) |

Data presented are mean±SD and median (IQR).

P values in bold: p<0.017 (significant after accounting for multiple tests of the differences in the three primary outcomes (leptin, HMW adiponectin and RBP-4) between GD and control groups).

*Crude p values were from paired t-tests in log-transformed data. Adjusted p values were from generalized linear models in the comparisons of log-transformed biomarker data between the two groups adjusted for maternal (pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, gestational hypertension) and neonatal (cesarean section) characteristics; other factors were excluded since they were similar and did not affect the comparisons (p>0.2).

BMI, body mass index; GD, gestational diabetes; HMW, high molecular weight; RBP-4, retinol-binding protein 4.