Table 1

Cord plasma RBP-4, leptin, HMW and total adiponectin concentrations in the newborns of GD versus control (euglycemic) mothers

GD (n=153)Control (n=153)Crude
P value*
P value*
RBP-4 (μg/mL)20.1±5.119.7±5.00.5620.204
19.5 (16.8, 23.2)19.0 (15.9, 22.7)
Leptin (ng/mL)7.3±7.38.1±7.10.0740.341
4.6 (2.8, 9.4)5.9 (3.6, 9.9)
Adiponectin, HMW (μg/mL)15.0±7.517.6±8.00.0020.006
14.3 (10.1, 18.8)16.3 (12.1, 21.6)
Adiponectin, total (μg/mL)33.2±15.036.3±15.80.0730.071
31.7 (23.5, 42.6)33.1 (24.7, 46.1)
HMW/total ratio0.46±0.150.50±0.140.0030.032
0.44 (0.36, 0.51)0.49 (0.41, 0.56)
  • Data presented are mean±SD and median (IQR).

  • P values in bold: p<0.017 (significant after accounting for multiple tests of the differences in the three primary outcomes (leptin, HMW adiponectin and RBP-4) between GD and control groups).

  • *Crude p values were from paired t-tests in log-transformed data. Adjusted p values were from generalized linear models in the comparisons of log-transformed biomarker data between the two groups adjusted for maternal (pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, gestational hypertension) and neonatal (cesarean section) characteristics; other factors were excluded since they were similar and did not affect the comparisons (p>0.2).

  • BMI, body mass index; GD, gestational diabetes; HMW, high molecular weight; RBP-4, retinol-binding protein 4.