Table 2

Cord plasma RBP-4, leptin and adiponectin concentrations in the newborns of GD versus control (euglycemic) mothers stratified by infant sex

Male newbornsCrude
P value*
P value*
Female newbornsCrude
P value*
P value*
RBP-4 (µg/mL)18.8±4.519.4±5.10.3830.59421.7±5.420.0±4.80.0780.007
Leptin (ng/mL)5.5±5.07.0±6.70.2310.2689.6±8.99.3±7.40.4160.690
 HMW (µg/mL)15.3±7.416.1±7.40.3120.35414.6±7.719.3±8.30.0020.004
 Total (µg/mL)35.1±15.235.6±15.60.7540.48530.8±14.337.1±16.10.0250.048
  • Data presented are mean±SD. There were 140 male newborns (of 70 GD and 70 euglycemic mothers) and 166 female newborns (of 83 GD and 83 euglycemic mothers) in the analyses.

  • P values in bold: p<0.017 (significant after accounting for multiple tests of the differences in the three primary outcomes (leptin, HMW adiponectin and RBP-4) between GD and control groups).

  • *Crude p values were from paired t-tests in log-transformed data. Adjusted p values were from generalized linear models in the comparisons of log-transformed biomarker data between the two groups adjusted for maternal (pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, gestational hypertension) and neonatal (cesarean section) characteristics; other factors were excluded since they were similar and did not affect the comparisons (p>0.2).

  • BMI, body mass index; GD, gestational diabetes; HMW, high molecular weight; RBP-4, retinol-binding protein 4.