Table 3

The adjusted differences in cord blood biomarkers between GD and controls in male and female newborns

β95% CIAdjusted
P value
β95% CIAdjusted
P value
RBP-4 (µg/mL)−0.02(−0.11 to 0.06)0.5940.13(0.04 to 0.22)0.007
Leptin (ng/mL)−0.16(−0.45 to 0.13)0.268−0.06(−0.34 to 0.22)0.690
 HMW (µg/mL)−0.07(−0.23 to 0.08)0.354−0.33(−0.56 to − 0.11)0.004
 Total (µg/mL)−0.05(−0.20 to 0.10)0.485−0.19(−0.37 to − 0.002)0.048
 HMW/total ratio−0.02(−0.12 to 0.08)0.682−0.15(−0.24 to − 0.05)0.003
  • Data (β) presented are the regression coefficients for GD (yes vs no) from generalized linear models of log-transformed biomarker data with the adjustments for maternal (pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, gestational hypertension) and neonatal (cesarean section) characteristics; other factors were excluded since they were similar and did not affect the comparisons between the two groups.

  • P values in bold: p<0.017 (significant after accounting for multiple tests of the differences in the three primary outcomes (leptin, HMW adiponectin, RBP-4) between GD and controls).

  • BMI, body mass index; GD, gestational diabetes; HMW, high molecular weight; RBP-4, retinol-binding protein 4.