Table 2

The association between FBG variability and lower-extremity PAD

Model 1Model 2Model 3
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
FBG variability as continuous variable
Per 1 SD increase*1.016 (1.01 to 1.021)<0.00011.013 (1.007 to 1.019)<0.00011.007 (1.001 to 1.013)0.028
Per 1 CV increase†1.068 (1.051 to 1.08)<0.00011.03 (1.016 to 1.043)<0.00011.015 (1.001 to 1.03)0.022
VIM1.039 (1.011 to 1.06)0.0061.037 (1.01 to 1.066)0.0071.032 (1.004 to 1.06)0.023
ARV1.007 (1.004 to 1.01)<0.00011.007 (1.003 to 1.01)<0.00011.016 (1.002 to 1.03)0.027
FBG variability as categorical variable
SD
 Q1RefRefRefRefRefref
 Q21.194 (0.918 to 1.552)0.1861.189 (0.914 to 1.546)0.1961.183 (0.909 to 1.538)0.211
 Q31.097 (0.84 to 1.432)0.4971.088 (0.833 to 1.42)0.5361.062 (0.813 to 1.387)0.657
 Q41.709 (1.334 to 2.19)<0.00011.625 (1.265 to 2.087)<0.00011.441 (1.118 to 1.857)0.005
P for trend<0.0001<0.00010.013
CV
 Q1RefRefRefRefRefref
 Q21.351 (1.041 to 1.753)0.0241.353 (1.043 to 1.757)0.0231.331 (1.025 to 1.728)0.032
 Q31.153 (0.881 to 1.51)0.31.142 (0.872 to 1.497)0.3331.119 (0.854 to 1.466)0.416
 Q41.746 (1.357 to 2.24)<0.00011.682 (1.305 to 2.168)<0.00011.499 (1.16 to 1.938)0.002
P for trend<0.00010.0010.011
VIM
 Q1RefRefRefRefRefref
 Q21.309 (1.014 to 1.69)0.0391.291 (1.0 to 1.667)0.051.268 (0.982 to 1.638)0.069
 Q31.27 (0.982 to 1.643)0.0691.27 (0.99 to 1.656)0.061.261 (0.974 to 1.632)0.078
 Q41.361 (1.051 to 1.762)0.0191.361 (1.059 to 1.778)0.0171.322 (1.02 to 1.714)0.035
P for trend<0.00010.0030.01
ARV
 Q1RefRefRefRefRefref
 Q21.049 (0.802 to 1.373)0.7281.027 (1.043 to 1.757)0.8451.009 (0.771 to 1.321)0.948
 Q31.333 (1.036 to 1.715)0.0251.325 (0.872 to 1.497)0.0291.298 (1.008 to 1.672)0.043
 Q41.665 (1.299 to 2.136)<0.00011.493 (1.305 to 2.168)0.0021.419 (1.097 to 1.835)0.008
P for trend<0.0001<0.00010.003
  • Model 1 adjusted for age, race, gender, smoking and drinking status, education level.

  • Model 2 further adjusted for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, HDL, LDL, baseline FBG and eGFR.

  • Model 3 further adjusted for prevalent CHD, stroke and HT, and medication use.

  • *One unit increase in SD corresponds to 0.7% increment of PAD risk.

  • †One unit increase in CV corresponds to 1.5% increment of PAD risk.

  • ARV, average real variability; BMI, body mass index; CHD, coronary heart disease; CV, coefficient of variation; DBP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HT, hypertension; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PAD, peripheral artery disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; VIM, variability independent of the mean.