Table 1

Demographic characteristics and laboratory measurements of study participants

Healthy volunteers
n=22
Patients with obesity
n=18
P value†Patients with obesity with T2DM n=14P value‡
Age, (year)35.23±9.6030.89±8.440.14242.00±12.390.005
Sex, male n (%)8 (36.4%)7 (38.9%)0.8705 (35.7%)0.854
Weight, kg59.72±8.52118.1±26.89<0.001114.36±32.44*0.724
BMI, kg/m221.92±1.6240.94±5.97<0.00140.34±9.02*0.824
Systolic BP, mm Hg107.73±8.69127.22±10.74<0.001129.5±9.22*0.532
Diastolic BP, mm Hg74.09±7.9675.56±8.560.57978.29±3.6*0.234
WBC, µL5550±1228.928055.56±2130.24<0.0019385.71±2342.21*0.104
eGFR CKD-EPI by Cr, mL/min/1.73 m2108.16±11.73116.27±10.650.029107.3±37.240.396
eGFR CKD-EPI by cysC, mL/min/1.73 m2116.82±10.89105.86±10.470.00393.65±37.46*0.256
AST, U/L18.67±5.4940.67±22.870.00135.42±25.06*0.542
ALT, U/L16.95±8.5469.22±42.94<0.00151.97±45.73*0.282
Total cholesterol, mg/dL177.67±22.63216.28±41.220.002183.74±49.050.050
Triglyceride mg/dL93.38±52.52193.28±115.840.003205.57±70.61*0.729
LDL cholesterol mg/dL106.32±19.6148.67±41.130.001118.33±49.760.069
HDL cholesterol mg/dL66.73±14.2346.83±9.61<0.00145.91±15.98*0.840
Glucose, mg/dL97.05±7.12107.61±16.260.018148.58±51.09*0.011
Cystatin C, mg/L0.78±0.090.86±0.090.0053±7.210.288
C-peptide, ng/mL4.54±1.97N/A3.72±1.630.215
BUN, mg/dL11.2 (8.88–12.9)10.85 (9.58–13.35)0.74414.35 (11.08–20.98)*0.055
Serum Cr, mg/dL0.72 (0.67–0.99)0.67 (0.61–0.87)0.1650.745 (0.56–0.94)0.732
HbA1c, mg/dL5.65 (5.4–5.9)N/A7.0 (6.58–9.23)<0.001
Urinary protein, mg/day58.65 (44.53–77.55)86 (64.35–135.85)0.003113.5 (105.23–288.25)*0.044
Urinary albumin, mg/day2 (1.55–3.08)5.85 (2.53–32.18)<0.00114.05 (8.15–111.1)*0.033
Urinary Cr, mg/dL1.5 (1.25–2.2)N/A1.65 (1.38–2.23)0.580
  • Data are presented as means±SD or median (IQR). Differences among healthy volunteers, patients with obesity and patients with obesity with T2DM were assessed using Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The sex variables were evaluated using χ2 test.

  • *P <0.05 between healthy volunteer and patients with obesity with T2DM.

  • †P (healthy volunteers vs patients with obesity).

  • ‡P (patient with obesity vs patients with obesity with T2DM).

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; BSA, body surface area; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CKD-EPI, CKD Epidemiology Collaboration; Cr, creatinine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; N/A, not available; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; WBC, white blood cell.