Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics according to amount of green tea or coffee consumed among Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes

Green tea consumptionCoffee consumption
None≤1 cup /d2–3 cups/d≥4 cups/dNone<1 cup /d1 cup/d≥2 cups/d
N60711431389178499413069631660
Age (years)64.6±10.262.5±10.865.7±9.867.3±9.769.0±10.066.4±10.265.6±10.162.3±9.5
Male sex (%)60.364.360.547.650.654.753.363.9
Duration of diabetes (years)14.9±10.314.8±10.415.9±10.616.0±10.616.3±10.915.5±10.615.5±10.315.2±10.4
BMI (kg/m2)23.9±3.424.1±3.823.5±3.723.7±3.923.7±3.723.9±3.823.9±4.023.6±3.6
Current smoker (%)24.920.718.8515.112.612.115.129.2
Current alcohol intake (%)40.545.742.631.830.538.840.943.5
Depressive symptoms (%)10.29.67.58.79.79.37.58.6
LTPA (MET h/week)12.3±16.111.2±14.711.5±14.012.0±15.311.3±14.811.3±14.912.5±15.211.8±14.8
Sleep duration (h/day)6.8±1.46.7±1.36.9±1.36.9±1.57.0±1.66.9±1.46.9±1.36.7±1.3
HbA1c (%)7.4±1.07.4±1.07.4±1.07.5±1.17.4±1.17.4±1.07.4±1.07.5±1.1
HbA1c (mmol/mol)57.3±10.857.4±11.257.4±10.758.4±12.257.4±11.857.1±11.257.8±11.058.5±11.6
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)73.3±23.778.6±21.874.2±21.473.5±20.969.7±23.173.5±21.075.5±22.278.6±20.4
UACR (mg/g・Cr)246±780175±690178±583195±620251±771209±666189±695145±509
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.9±0.72.8±0.72.9±0.72.9±0.72.8±0.72.8±0.72.8±0.72.9±0.7
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4±0.41.5±0.41.5±0.41.5±0.41.4±0.41.4±0.41.5±0.41.5±0.4
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130±18130±17130±17132±17131±18132±17131±17129±16
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75±1175±1175±1174±1173±1174±1175±1175±10
History of CVD (%)24.222.120.721.425.722.820.918.9
History of cancer (%)7.18.59.410.711.19.410.47.7
Insulin therapy (%)32.827.727.029.630.424.928.731.1
Oral hypoglycemic agent (%)59.664.265.562.361.264.964.162.9
Antihypertensive drugs (%)55.751.654.654.461.957.456.545.1
Antiplatelet drugs (%)28.222.924.125.829.426.925.220.6
Statin (%)43.044.441.044.743.940.848.442.3
Coffee drinker
(>0 cup/d, %)
75.187.081.575.5
Green tea drinker (>0 cup/d, %)84.889.688.587.4
  • Values are expressed as means±SD or percentages.

  • BMI, body mass index; Cr, creatinine; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rates; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LTPA, leisure-time physical activity; MET, metabolic equivalent; UACR, urinary albumin creatinine ratio.