Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

Age at T1D diagnosis (median, range) (years)8 (1–15)
Age at randomization (median, range) (years)14.9 (12–19.5)
Male (%)32
Race/Ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic white77.1
 Hispanic12.3
 African-American6.6
 Other4.1
BMI Z-score2.03 (0.79)
BMI%95117.6 (23.2)
Waist circumference (cm)91.0 (SD 9.7)
Weight (kg)76.4 (10.5)
Percentage body fat (DEXA)37.43 (7.8)
DEXA total mass (kg)75 (10.4)
DEXA fat mass (g)27 727.2 (7523.5)
DEXA lean mass (g)45 179.9 (7957.8)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)116.2 (9.5)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)68.0 (7.0)
Tanner stage for pubic hair (%)
 11.6
 22.5
 39.0
 416.4
 570.5
Tanner stage for breast development (females only) (%)
 11.6
 20.8
 38.2
 413.1
 576.2
Total insulin dose (units/kg/day)1.09 (0.21)
Basal insulin dose (units/kg/day)0.52 (0.12)
Leptin (pg/mL) (median, IQR)8316 (4832–14177)
Adiponectin (μg/mL) (median, IQR)18.1 (12.7–30.7)
Leptin/Adiponectin ratio (median, IQR)402 (188.0–871.2)
  • Measures are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

  • BMI, body mass index; DEXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; T1D, type 1 diabetes.