Table 4

Differences in dietary intake between GDM and non-GDM participants*

GDM (n=33)Control (n=29)Model 2 p valueModel 3 p value
Total calorie (kcal/day)‡1566±5401954±5820.010.0382
Total fat (g/day)63.0±30.375.6±
Total carbohydrate (g/day)181.0±16.4236.3±16.80.0010.23
Saturated fat (g/day)21.0±11.225.4±
Monounsaturated fat (g/day)21.8±10.426.3±
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)14.2±7.517.4±
Linoleic acid (g/day)12.4±6.814.9±
Linolenic acid (g/day)1.3±0.61.7±0.70.0290.13
EPA (mg/day)39.3±50.290.8±162.00.0550.26
DHA (mg/day)118.6±146.3202.3±349.60.150.47
Glycemic load95.8±39.1136.1±42.1<0.0010.06
Vitamin D (µg/day)4.9±2.96.1±
Vitamin E (mg/day)6.6±2.68.3±3.50.0180.41
Vitamin C (mg/day)54.3±29.994.0±52.8<0.0010.046
Total fruits score†2.5±1.72.7±1.80.47
Whole fruits score†2.1±1.71.9±1.70.74
Total vegetables score†4.5±1.14.6±0.70.7
Greens and beans score†3.3±2.33.6±1.60.76
Whole grain score†5.8±3.64.0±3.30.093
Dairy score†5.3±3.04.7±2.10.26
Total protein score†5.0±0.24.8±0.40.23
Seafood and plant proteins score†3.2±2.03.0±2.10.83
Fatty acids score†4.7±2.94.0±2.70.59
Refined grains score†7.3±3.16.4±3.20.59
Sodium score†2.4±3.02.9±2.30.4
Added sugars score†9.3±1.67.8±1.90.001
Saturated fats score†5.5±3.55.9±2.90.49
  • *Analyzed with analysis of covariance; model 2 adjusted for gestational week of blood draw, maternal age, sex of neonate, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education level, and parity; model 3 adjusted for covariates in model 2 and prepregnancy BMI and total energy intake; values are mean±SD.

  • †These scores are based on the scoring standards of Healthy Eating Index (HEI)−2015. Since the scores are based on per 1000 kcal intake, total energy intake was not adjusted in statistical analysis.

  • ‡Model 3 of this dependent variable does not include ‘energy’ as a covariate.

  • DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.