Table 1

Prevalence of CVD risk factors at phase 5 (baseline) and phase 6 (follow-up) in the Vellore Birth Cohort according to sex and place of residence (rural or urban)

CVD risk factorPhaseMenWomen
Rural (n=240)
% (95% CI)
Urban (n=279)
% (95% CI)
Rural (n=217)
% (95% CI)
Urban (n=226)
% (95% CI)
Overweight/obese,
n (%)
Phase 56.7 (3.5 to 9.8)18.9 (14.4 to 23.6)9.2 (5.4 to 13.1)31.9 (25.8 to 37.9)
Phase 635.4 (29.4 to 41.5)50.5 (44.7 to 56.4)49.8 (43.1 to 56.4)70.8 (64.9 to 76.7)
Change in percentage+28.8 (21.9 to 35.6)+31.6 (24.1 to 56.4)+40.6 (32.9 to 48.2)+38.9 (30.5 to 47.4)
Obesity, n (%)Phase 50.8 (−0.03 to 2.0)2.2 (0.4 to 3.9)0.5 (−0.4 to 1.4)8.0 (4.4 to 11.5)
Phase 65.4 (2.6 to 8.3)13.6 (9.6 to 17.6)15.7 (10.8 to 20.5)34.1 (27.9 to 40.2)
Change in percentage+4.6 (1.5 to 7.7)+11.4 (7.1 to 15.8)+15.2 (10.3 to 20.1)+26.1 (19.0 to 33.2)
Central obesity,
n (%)
Phase 58.8 (5.2 to 12.3)20.8 (16.0 to 25.6)13.8 (9.2 to 18.4)35.0 (28.7 to 41.2)
Phase 643.8 (37.5 to 50.0)61.3 (55.6 to 67.0)54.8 (48.2 to 61.5)76.6 (71.0 to 82.1)
Change in percentage+35.0 (27.8 to 42.2)+40.55 (33.1 to 47.9)+41.0 (33.0 to 49.1)+41.6 (33.3 to 49.9)
Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, n (%)Phase 520.8 (15.7 to 26.0)19.0 (14.4 to 23.6)22.1 (16.6 to 27.6)27.0 (21.2 to 32.8)
Phase 611.7 (7.6 to 15.7)14.7 (10.5 to 18.8)15.2 (10.4 to 20.0)22.6 (17.1 to 28.0)
Change in percentage−9.1 (−15.7 to 2.6)−4.3 (-10.5 to 1.9)−6.9 (−14.2 to 0.4)−4.4 (−12.4 to 3.5)
Type 2 diabetes,
n (%)
Phase 51.7 (0.0 to 3.3)3.9 (1.7 to 6.2)1.8 (0.1 to 3.6)3.5 (1.1 to 5.9)
Phase 618.8 (13.8 to 23.7)17.9 (13.4 to 22.4)11.5 (7.3 to 15.8)16.8 (11.9 to 21.7)
Change in percentage+17.1 (11.9 to 22.3)+14.0 (8.9 to 19.0)+9.7 (5.1 to 14.3)+13.3 (7.8 to 18.7)
Hypertension,
n (%)
Phase 51.7 (0.0 to 3.3)5.4 (2.7 to 8.0)0.5 (−0.4 to 1.4)0.9 (−0.3 to 2.1)
Phase 624.2 (18.8 to 29.6)28.4 (23.0 to 33.6)10.6 (6.5 to 14.7)12.4 (8.1 to 16.7)
Change in percentage+22.5 (16.8 to 28.2)+23.0 (17.0 to 28.9)+10.1 (5.9 to 14.3)+11.5 (7.0 to 16.0)
Hypertriglyceridemia,
n (%)
Phase 516.7 (12.0 to 21.4)25.5 (20.3 to 30.6)6.5 (3.2 to 9.7)10.6 (6.6 to 14.6)
Phase 638.8 (32.6 to 44.9)42.7 (36.8 to 48.5)17.1 (12.0 to 22.1)16.8 (11.9 to 21.7)
Change in percentage+22.1 (14.3 to 29.8)+17.2 (9.5 to 24.9)+10.6 (4.6 to 16.6)+6.2 (−0.1 to 12.5)
Hypercholesterolemia,
n (%)
Phase 54.2 (1.6 to 6.7)15.4 (11.2 to 19.6)4.2 (1.5 to 6.8)12.8 (8.5 to 17.2)
Phase 615.8 (11.2 to 20.5)27.2
(22.0 to 32.5)
8.8 (5.0 to 12.5)18.6 (13.5 to 23.7)
Change in percentage+11.6(6.4 to 16.9)+11.8 (5.1 to 18.6)+4.6 (0.0 to 9.2)+5.8 (−0.9 to 12.4)
Low HDL-cholesterol,
n (%)
Phase 565.8 (59.8 to 71.8)61.3 (55.6 to 67.0)82.0 (76.9 to 87.1)80.1 (74.9 to 85.3)
Phase 645.8 (39.5 to 52.1)54.8 (49.0 to 60.7)74.7 (68.9 to 80.4)69.5 (63.5 to 75.5)
Change in percentage−20.0 (−28.7 to −11.3)−6.5 (−14.6 to 1.7)−7.3 (−15.1 to 0.3)−10.6 (−18.6 to −2.7)
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.