Table 4

Energy-adjusted dietary intake by glycemic level in non-pregnant adults 20+ years old from NHANES 2013–2016 adjusted for age, race, and sex*

No diabetesPre-diabetesDiabetesP value (ANOVA)
HbA1c<5.7%HbA1c≥5.7% and <6.5%HbA1c<6.5%HbA1c≥6.5% and <9.0%HbA1c≥9.0%
n (unweighted)2422928417405125
Energy (kcal/day)2189 (2142 to 2235)2216 (2132 to 2300)2095 (1978 to 2213)2151 (1997 to 2305)2094 (1918 to 2269)0.556
Protein (% kcal)16.1 (15.6 to 16.5)15.9 (15.4 to 16.4)16.2 (15.4 to 17.1)16.0 (15.4 to 16.6)17.2 (15.9 to 18.5)0.440
Total carbohydrates (% kcal)46.9 (46.2 to 47.6)47.9 (46.7 to 49.0)46.3 (45.2 to 47.3)48.3 (46.9 to 49.7)45.6 (43.2 to 48.1)0.051
 Total sugar (% kcal)20.2 (19.5 to 20.9)21.1 (20.1 to 22.1)20.2 (19.1 to 21.3)19.1 (17.4 to 20.8)19.4 (16.3 to 22.5)0.098
 Fiber (g/2000 kcal)16 (16 to 17)15 (15 to 16)16 (15 to 17)16 (15 to 17)15 (13 to 18)0.209
Fat (% kcal)34.9 (34.6 to 35.3)35.0 (34.1 to 36.0)35.0 (33.9 to 36.1)35.3 (34.0 to 36.6)36.8 (34.7 to 38.9)0.493
 Saturated fat (% kcal)11.3 (11.1 to 11.5)11.7 (11.2 to 12.1)11.7 (11.2 to 12.3)11.5 (11.0 to 12.1)12.0 (11.1 to 12.8)0.203
 Monounsaturated fat (% kcal)12.3 (12.1 to 12.4)12.1 (11.7 to 12.5)12.1 (11.6 to 12.5)12.2 (11.7 to 12.7)13.1 (12.2 to 14.0)0.174
 Polyunsaturated fat (% kcal)8.1 (7.9 to 8.3)8.0 (7.7 to 8.3)7.8 (7.4 to 8.3)8.3 (7.8 to 8.9)8.2 (7.6 to 8.9)0.268
Cholesterol (mg/2000 kcal)277 (264 to 290)290 (272 to 308)296 (266 to 326)296 (267 to 324)309 (270 to 348)0.610
Calcium (mg/2000 kcal)927 (896 to 958)899 (869 to 929)1016 (927 to 1104)972 (884 to 1060)905 (821 to 989)0.124
Potassium (mg/2000 kcal)2527 (2473 to 2581)2461 (2372 to 2550)2515 (2398 to 2633)2492 (2331 to 2653)2516 (2360 to 2673)0.639
Magnesium (mg/2000 kcal)297 (288 to 305)275 (265 to 285)283 (268 to 298)282 (268 to 297)272 (246 to 299)0.007
Sodium (mg/2000 kcal)3412 (3341 to 3482)3476 (3352 to 3600)3521 (3362 to 3680)3678 (3482 to 3874)3771 (3492 to 4051)0.144
Overall HEI-2015 diet score†44.6 (43.7 to 45.6)41.5 (40.2 to 42.8)42.1 (40.4 to 43.8)42.4 (40.4 to 44.3)39.0 (37.0 to 41.1)0.001
  • Bold text indicates statistical significance at the P < 0.05 level.

  • *Values are means (95% CIs).

  • †Range=0 (worst) to 100 (best).

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; HbA1c, glycohemoglobin A1c; HEI-2015, Healthy Eating Index-2015; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.