Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population

Total study population (n=41 598)People with periodontal treatment in 2012–2018 (n=8188)People without periodontal treatment in 2012–2018 (n=33 410)χ2 p value
Gender, No. (%)
 Men22 605 (54.3)4721 (57.7)17 884 (53.5)<0.001
 Women18 992 (45.7)3467 (42.3)15 525 (46.5)
 Unknown1 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Age, No. (%), years
18–25475 (1.1)36 (0.4)439 (1.3)<0.001
25–30460 (1.1)55 (0.7)405 (1.2)
30–35666 (1.6)101 (1.2)565 (1.7)
35–401139 (2.7)212 (2.6)927 (2.8)
40–452198 (5.3)427 (5.2)1771 (5.3)
45–503513 (8.5)778 (9.5)2735 (8.2)
50–554867 (11.7)1152 (14.1)3715 (11.1)
55–606120 (14.7)1356 (16.6)4764 (14.3)
60–656977 (16.8)1518 (18.5)5459 (16.3)
65–706752 (16.2)1323 (16.2)5429 (16.3)
70–754357 (10.5)703 (8.6)3654 (10.9)
75–802621 (6.3)365 (4.5)2256 (6.8)
80–851161 (2.8)136 (1.7)1025 (3.1)
85–90263 (0.6)22 (0.3)241 (0.7)
90–9528 (0.1)3 (0.0)25 (0.1)
95–1001 (0.0)1 (0.0)0 (0.0)
SES, No. (%)
 Very low9362 (22.5)2141 (26.2)7648 (21.6)<0.001
 Low10 256 (24.7)2249 (27.5)7148 (24.0)
 Moderate3976 (9.6)929 (11.4)3047 (9.1)
 High8516 (20.5)1368 (16.7)8007 (21.4)
 Very high9070 (21.8)1422 (17.4)7221 (22.9)
 Unknown418 (1.0)79 (1.0)339 (1.0)
Diabetes medication in 2012, No. (%)
 Only metformin14 534 (34.9)2985 (36.5)11 549 (34.6)0.001
 Other oral DM medication†13 254 (31.9)2605 (31.8)10 649 (31.9)
 Insulin13 810 (33.2)2598 (31.7)11 212 (33.6)
Diabetes-related healthcare costs per patient per quarter, median (IQR), €
 201238.45 (11.52–263.14)33.14 (10.90–257.83)40.22 (11.67–264.72)0.003
 201341.00 (11.64–267.60)34.37 (11.13–267.79)42.48 (11.78–267.50)0.023
 201444.42 (12.76–262.91)38.17 (12.29–263.01)46.04 (12.90–262.87)0.016
 201547.11 (13.10–228.39)40.87 (12.36–227.87)48.53 (13.27–228.44)0.009
 201659.17 (14.80–248.21)50.47 (14.25–246.40)61.57 (14.93–248.34)0.040
 201739.29 (4.88–225.60)34.09 (4.86–230.04)40.41 (4.89–224.56)0.597
 201846.58 (5.04–223.62)40.08 (5.09–226.32)47.89 (5.03–223.01)0.773
Periodontal treatment costs per patient per quarter, median (IQR), €*
 201229.74 (17.00–41.09)29.74 (17.00–41.09)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201329.06 (15.39–41.04)29.06 (15.39–41.04)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201431.94 (16.86–42.97)31.94 (16.86–42.97)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201530.83 (16.25–43.60)30.83 (16.25–43.60)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201630.13 (20.02–45.19)30.13 (20.02–45.19)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201730.66 (20.37–45.98)30.66 (20.37–45.98)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
 201831.50 (20.93–47.24)31.50 (20.93–47.24)0 (0.0–0.0)<0.001
  • *Periodontal treatment costs only for those with periodontal treatment.

  • †May include metformin in combination with other oral blood glucose-lowering drugs.

  • DM, diabetes mellitus; NA, not applicable; SES, socioeconomic status.