Table 2

Least squares mean (95% CI) concentrations of inflammation, lipid, and liver enzyme biomarkers among middle-aged women with history of gestational diabetes, according to lifetime duration of lactation*

Lifetime duration of lactation (months)
01–1212–24>24P linear trend
CRP, mg/L
 Model 12.01 (1.57 to 2.59)1.91 (1.63 to 2.23)1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)1.44 (1.25 to 1.67)0.003
 Model 22.06 (1.59 to 2.66)1.99 (1.70 to 2.34)1.64 (1.40 to 1.94)1.36 (1.16 to 1.59)0.0006
 Model 31.90 (1.47 to 2.45)1.98 (1.68 to 2.32)1.67 (1.42 to 1.97)1.39 (1.19 to 1.62)0.003
IL-6, pg/mL
 Model 11.30 (0.98 to 1.73)1.14 (0.96 to 1.36)1.03 (0.86 to 1.24)0.96 (0.81 to 1.13)0.046
 Model 21.33 (1.00 to 1.77)1.20 (1.00 to 1.77)1.03 (0.86 to 1.24)0.91 (0.76 to 1.09)0.01
 Model 31.25 (0.94 to 1.68)1.19 (0.99 to 1.42)1.04 (0.87 to 1.25)0.93 (0.78 to 1.11)0.04
Cholesterol, mg/dL
 Model 1189 (182 to 197)197 (192 to 202)201 (196 to 206)201 (196 to 206)0.04
 Model 2189 (182 to 197)197 (192 to 202)201 (196 to 206)200 (195 to 205)0.07
 Model 3190 (182 to 198)198 (193 to 203)201 (196 to 206)200 (195 to 205)0.18
Triglycerides, mg/dL
 Model 1132 (119 to 146)116 (109 to 123)115 (107 to 122)109 (103 to 116)0.007
 Model 2130 (118 to 144)115 (108 to 123)115 (108 to 123)110 (103 to 117)0.03
 Model 3128 (115 to 142)115 (108 to 123)115 (108 to 123)110 (103 to 117)0.04
HDL-C, mg/dL
 Model 156.7 (53.2 to 60.4)59.8 (57.5 to 62.2)60.9 (58.5 to 63.5)60.8 (58.6 to 63.1)0.15
 Model 257.1 (53.5 to 60.9)60.1 (57.7 to 62.5)60.8 (58.4 to 63.4)60.5 (58.2 to 63.0)0.31
 Model 358.3 (54.7 to 62.2)60.1 (57.8 to 62.6)60.7 (58.2 to 63.2)60.2 (57.9 to 62.6)0.66
LDL-C, mg/dL
 Model 1101 (95 to 108)108 (104 to 112)110 (106 to 115)110 (106 to 114)0.11
 Model 2101 (95 to 108)108 (104 to 113)111 (106 to 115)110 (106 to 115)0.12
 Model 3102 (95 to 109)109 (104 to 113)111 (106 to 115)109 (105 to 114)0.27
ALT, U/L
 Model 121.1 (19.1 to 23.2)20.1 (19.0 to 21.4)19.8 (18.6 to 21.1)19.2 (18.1 to 20.3)0.10
 Model 220.5 (18.6 to 22.6)19.9 (18.7 to 21.2)19.8 (18.6 to 21.1)19.6 (18.4 to 20.8)0.49
 Model 320.4 (18.5 to 22.6)19.9 (18.7 to 21.2)19.8 (18.6 to 21.1)19.6 (18.4 to 20.8)0.53
AST, U/L
 Model 126.8 (24.9 to 28.9)25.6 (24.5 to 26.8)25.3 (24.1to 26.6)25.5 (24.4 to 26.6)0.47
 Model 226.5 (24.6 to 28.6)25.5 (24.3 to 26.7)25.3 (24.1 to 26.6)25.7 (24.6 to 26.9)0.84
 Model 326.6 (24.6 to 28.7)25.5 (24.3 to 26.7)25.3 (24.1 to 26.6)25.7 (24.6 to 26.9)0.83
GGT, U/L
 Model 119.0 (16.4 to 21.9)19.8 (18.1 to 21.7)18.5 (16.8 to 20.3)17.0 (15.6 to 18.5)0.02
 Model 218.3 (15.8 to 21.2)19.6 (17.9 to 21.5)18.4 (16.8 to 20.2)17.4 (15.9 to 19.0)0.17
 Model 318.2 (15.7 to 21.1)19.6 (17.8 to 21.5)18.4 (16.7 to 20.1)17.5 (16.0 to 19.2)0.22
  • *Model 1 is adjusted for age at follow-up blood draw. Model 2 is additionally adjusted for ethnicity (white/non-white), family history of diabetes (yes/no), parity, age at first birth (<25, 25–29, 30–34, and ≥35 years), and menopausal status at follow-up blood draw (yes/no). Model 3 is adjusted for model 2 in addition to ever smoking (yes/no), diet quality (high/low), physical activity (high/low), and prepregnancy BMI (≤25, 25–30, and >30 kg/m2).

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IL-6, interleukin-6; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.