Table 1

Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics at baseline

Children
(≤12 years)
Teenagers
(13–17 years)
Adults
(≥18 years)
P value
Number of patients302476
Age (years)8.8 (7.7–10.6)15.6 (14.2–16.8)45.0 (29.0–58.1)<0.001
Female, n (%)13 (43.3)9 (37.5)37 (48.7)0.611
SDS-BMI or BMI*−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.4)21.3 (19.8–23.1)24.7 (22.1–26.8)n.a.
Diabetes duration (years)4.2 (2.3–6.5)7.2 (5.1–9.5)22.0 (14.3–30.8)†<0.001
Complications
 Any, n (%)‡30 (100.0)24 (100.0)54 (71.1)0.016
 Diabetic retinopathy, n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)12 (15.8)
 Diabetic neuropathy, n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (2.6)
 Diabetic foot, n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.3)
 >1 complication, n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)7 (9.2)
Dexcom/FreeStyle Libre users, n (%)§28/2 (93.3/6.7)22/2 (91.7/8.3)35/41 (46.1/53.9)†<0.001
Patients under multiple daily injection therapy, n (%)12 (40.0)11 (45.8)63 (82.9)†<0.001
Mean insulin dose (U/kg/day)0.8 (0.6–0.8)0.8 (0.7–1)0.5 (0.4–0.6)<0.001
Glycated hemoglobin, mmol/mol57 (51–62)51 (46–57)56 (49–64)0.080
During lockdown
Patients receiving medical advice by telephone, n (%)6 (20.0)2 (8.0)8 (11.0)0.330
Patients with severe hypoglycemia, n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.3)n.a.
IPAQ: total physical activity/day, METs1440 (840–1920)1018 (480–3056)1680 (720–3180)0.524
 IPAQ: high-intensity physical activity/day, METs0 (0–320)180 (0–2880)440 (0–1560)0.104
 IPAQ: moderate physical activity/day, METs1440 (240–1680)100 (0–390)†480 (120–1080)0.001
 IPAQ: walking/day, METs0 (0–180)75 (0–428)350 (78–780)¶0.001
IPAQ: mean sitting time/day, hours4.0 (3.0–6.0)7.3 (5.0–8.6)¶5.5 (4–7.8)0.005
PSS: perceived stressn.a.n.a.14.5 (9.8–20)n.a.
Patients employed in working activity
 No, n (%)n.a.n.a.36 (47.4)n.a.
 Yes, n (%)n.a.n.a.20 (26.3)
 Smart working at home, n (%)n.a.n.a.20 (26.3)
  • Data are expressed as median with IQR in parentheses. Continuous variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and categorical variables were investigated by χ2 test. Pairwise comparisons were made after Bonferroni correction.

  • *In children, SDS-BMI was calculated instead of BMI, according to a previous publication.21

  • †P<0.05 vs other groups.

  • ‡No diabetic retinopathy, no diabetic neuropathy, and no diabetic foot.

  • §The number of scans per day in FreeStyle Libre users was similar between prelockdown (mean±SD 11.0±4.5) and during lockdown (11.2±4.8) (p=0.658).

  • ¶P<0.05 vs children.

  • BMI, body mass index; IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form; MET, metabolic equivalent; n.a., not assessed; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; SDS-BMI, SD score for body mass index.