Table 2

Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis of risk factors for postoperative NODM

Univariable modelMultivariable modelCut-off value
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Age (years)1.037 (1.024 to 1.050)<0.001*1.029 (1.013 to 1.045)<0.00138
Gender0.007*
 Male1.300 (1.074 to 1.573)
 FemaleRef
Family history of type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives)0.406
 Yes1.209 (0.772 to 1.894)
 NoRef
Body mass index (kg/m2)1.067 (1.032 to 1.103)<0.001*1.042 (1.003 to 1.083)0.03423.47
ASA score0.047*
 IRef
 II1.640 (1.097 to 2.452)
 III1.478 (0.452 to 4.832)
Component of tumor0.741
 Cystic0.557 (0.362 to 0.857)
 Cystic and solid0.718 (0.446 to 1.155)
 SolidRef
Tumor size (cm)0.998 (0.938 to 1.063)0.200
Length of resected pancreas (cm)1.101 (1.051 to 1.153)<0.001*1.079 (1.013 to 1.148)0.0178.95
Pathological diagnosis0.003*
 Serous cystic neoplasmRef
 Mucinous cystic neoplasm1.064 (0.577 to 1.962)
 Neuroendocrine tumor1.089 (0.614 to 1.931)
 Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm0.353 (0.158 to 0.787)
 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm2.148 (1.014 to 4.511)
 Pseudocyst0.719 (0.238 to 2.170)
 Chronic pancreatitis1.882 (0.698 to 5.073)
 Other1.045 (0.428 to 2.548)
Operative approach0.015*
 OpenRef
 Minimally invasive0.618 (0.419 to 0.911)
Operative time (min)1.003 (1.001 to 1.005)0.015*
Operative blood loss (mL)1.000 (1.000 to 1.001)<0.001*1.0003 (1.0002 to 1.0010)0.005425
Splenectomy<0.001*
 Yes1.686 (1.335 to 2.130)2.001 (1.202 to 3.331)0.008
 NoRef
Postoperative complication0.002*
 Yes1.943 (1.309 to 2.884)
 NoRef
Clinical postoperative pancreatic fistula (grades B and C)0.213
 Yes1.482 (0.795 to 2.764)
 NoRef
Abdominal infection/abscess0.067
 Yes1.942 (1.013 to 3.723)
 NoRef
In-hospital cost (¥)1.000 (1.000 to 1.000)0.053
Postoperative length of hospital stay (day)1.020 (0.996 to 1.044)0.110
  • *Statistically significant.

  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; NODM, new-onset diabetes mellitus.