Table 1

Characteristics of the study sample and glucometabolic parameters

nHbA1c <5.7nHbA1c ≥5.7P value
Age (years)19731.9±5.22333.4±5.10.191
Week of gestation19715.9±2.92315.2±3.20.242
Early pregnancy BMI (kg/m²)19728.0±5.72332.2±5.6<0.001
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m²)19626.5±5.82330.5±5.40.002
GDM19767 (34.0%)2317 (73.9)<0.001
IGDM19744 (22.3%)2315 (65.2%)<0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)19679.7±7.22390.4±13.2<0.001
60 min post-OGTT glucose (mg/dL)196138.9±34.623182.6±44.3<0.001
120 min post-OGTT glucose (mg/dL)196106.0±26.823131.3±32.3<0.001
Mean glucose (mg/dL)180116.2±21.422145.6±31.4<0.001
Maximum glucose (mg/dL)180147.8±30.122186.5±42.6<0.001
Fasting insulin (µU/mL)1964.38 (1.90–8.51)233.71 (2.31–9.09)0.709
Mean insulin (µU/mL)17839.9 (28.8–62.7)2240.7 (26.1–62.8)0.901
Fasting C-peptide (ng/mL)1951.40 (1.10–2.00)231.80 (1.45–2.70)0.010
Mean C-peptide (ng/mL)1786.63 (5.33–8.20)227.26 (5.91–9.27)0.158
Early insulin secretion (µU/mg)18776.9 (48.7–122.5)2239.5 (24.2–73.4)0.001
Late insulin secretion (µU/mg)17743.5 (31.0–65.1)2238.8 (25.8–52.9)0.108
Total insulin secretion (µU/mg)17738.4 (26.1–57.0)2229.6 (21.9–42.2)1960.039
QUICKI (dimensionless)1950.40±0.05220.39±0.050.362
ISI-comp (dimensionless)1709.27±5.63227.86±5.220.265
ISSI-2 (dimensionless)170319±12822213±129<0.001
  • Data are mean±SD, median (IQR) or counts and percentages for patients with normal and elevated HbA1c at early pregnancy.

  • BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; IGDM, insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus; ISI-comp, composite index; ISSI-2, oral disposition index; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index.