Table 4

Cox proportional hazards model for the development of DR in patients with T1DM

VariableCategoryHR95% CIP value
HbA1c mean (%)1.61.19 to 2.100.002
Age of onset of DM
Deprivation: census section
<18 years/no deprivationReference
<18 years/medium deprivation10.44 to 2.490.986
<18 years/high deprivation0.50.20 to 1.460.227
≥18 years/no deprivation0.70.24 to 1.880.454
≥18 years/medium deprivation1.20.51 to 2.960.640
≥18 years/high deprivation2.91.08 to 8.000.033
SexMaleReference
Female0.90.48 to 1.600.694
  • DM, diabetes mellitus; DR, diabetic retinopathy; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus.