Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics of healthy pregnant women (CTRL), pregnant women with normal gestational age (GDM) and with LGA (GDM/LGA) enrolled in the study (mean±SEM)

CTRL group
GDM group
GDM/LGA group
P value
Maternal parameters
Maternal pregravid BMI (kg/m2)21.8±0.633.9±0.838.3±1.6p<0.0001*#
Gestational weight gain (kg)12±2.27.6±1.52.8±3.8n.s.
Maternal age (years)36.4±1.735.1±1.434.8±1.7n.s.
Gestational age (weeks)39.2±0.139.1±0.0439.3±0.1n.s.
Mode of deliveryCS 5CS 12CS 5n.s.
Placental weight (g)491.4±30.8508±26.8530.0±50.7n.s.
Fasting glucose at delivery (mg/dL)78.2±4.684.1±3.2100.8±4.3p<0.05#†
Fetal parameters
Birth weight (g)3606.0±142.23313.0±76.033958.0±60.0p<0.001*
F/P ratio7.4±0.36.7±0.47.8±0.8n.s.
Gender (F/M)3/26/64/1n.s.
  • * and # This represents statistical significance of CTRL versus GDM and GDM/LGA, respectively.

  • †This represents statistical significance of GDM versus GDM/LGA.

  • BMI, body mass index; CS, elective caesarean section; F/P ratio, fetal weight/placental weight ratio; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus; LGA, large-for-gestational-age; n.s., not significant.