Table 1

Characteristics of women who were eligible for the study, stratified by Caucasian and Asian women

CharacteristicsCaucasian (n=1 61 251)Asian
(n=71 252)
Total
(N=2 32 503)
P value
n%n%N%
Large-for-gestational-age neonates17 85211.135665.021 4189.2<0.001
Type 1 diabetes7980.51650.29630.4<0.001
Maternal age at delivery (years) (mean±SD)31.0±5.132.0±4.5
 ≤1926411.61350.227761.2<0.001
 20–34118 81873.750 42370.8169 24172.8
 35–3933 21620.617 04623.950 26221.6
 ≥4064394.035985.010 0374.3
 Missing1370.1500.11870.1
Neighborhood median family income quintiles
 Quintile 1 (lowest)26 96316.716 12322.643 08618.5<0.001
 Quintile 226 63716.511 09315.637 73016.2
 Quintile 329 47618.312 82818.042 30418.2
 Quintile 438 88624.116 77923.555 66523.9
 Quintile 5 (highest)31 41519.510 53314.841 94818.0
 Missing78744.938965.511 7705.1
Parity
 075 20546.630 08542.2105 29045.3<0.001
 ≥184 14352.239 94656.1124 08953.4
 Missing19031.212211.731241.3
Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (mean±SD)26.2±6.224.0±4.6
 Underweight (BMI <18.5)40912.537045.277953.4<0.001
 Normal (BMI 18.5–24.9)69 31643.034 19648.0103 51244.5
 Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9)37 75723.414 08219.851 83922.3
 Obese (BMI≥30)30 95519.255697.836 52415.7
 Missing19 13211.913 70119.232 83314.1
Gestational weight gain* (kg) (mean±SD)13.6±10.912.0±9.6
 Less than recommended40 39025.022 39631.462 78627.0<0.001
 Within recommended range30 44218.915 59621.946 03819.8
 More than recommended71 28744.219 55927.590 84639.1
 Missing19 13211.913 70119.232 83314.1
Conception type
 In vitro fertilization32942.012501.845442.0<0.001
 Intrauterine insemination32092.011081.643171.9
 Spontaneous conception143 84989.263 91189.7207 76089.4
 Missing10 8996.849837.015 8826.8
Drug use during pregnancy†‡29611.81450.231061.3<0.001
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy†‡43662.75870.849532.1<0.001
Smoking during pregnancy (any time)§16 71910.47451.017 4647.5<0.001
Pre-existing hypertension14300.95840.820140.90.1184
Pre-existing type 2 diabetes7130.46510.913640.6<0.001
Pre-existing heart disease22871.43270.526141.1<0.001
Pulmonary disease75014.78021.183033.6<0.001
Anxiety‡¶18 83111.711891.720 0208.6<0.001
Depression‡¶14 5209.011991.715 7196.8<0.001
Gestational diabetes92365.710 45114.719 6878.5<0.001
Antenatal healthcare provider
 Inclusive of family physician17 14410.635094.920 6538.9<0.001
 Obstetrician81 79350.755 82478.3137 61759.2
 Family physician+obstetrician27 40317.039685.631 37113.5
 Midwife23 16814.436095.126 77711.5
 None1840.1910.12750.1
 Other19871.23000.422871.0
 Missing/unknown95725.939515.513 5235.8
Maternal hospital care of level**
 Level I17 18810.76961.017 8847.7<0.001
 Level IIa17 48510.824503.419 9358.6
 Level IIb40 31225.022 84732.163 15927.2
 Level IIc41 97526.032 78246.074 75732.2
 Level III43 31326.911 34015.954 65323.5
 Missing9780.611371.621150.9
Baby gender
 Male82 65351.336 49351.2119 14651.20.76
 Female78 59848.734 75948.8113 35748.8
  • Missing data were included from the percentage calculation.

  • *2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations.

  • †Drug use, alcohol use constitute any drug or alcohol use during pregnancy.

  • ‡Self-reported variables.

  • §Maternal smoking during pregnancy captures any smoking either at the first prenatal visit or at the time of labor/admission for delivery.

  • ¶Anxiety or depression constitutes concerns during this pregnancy including those pre-existing, diagnosed during pregnancy, or active during pregnancy.

  • **Maternal hospital level of care classification based on newborn and maternal needs, risk and illness as defined by the Provincial Council for Maternal and Child Health (Ontario).