Table 3

HRs for clinical outcomes by intraindividual SD of fasting plasma glucose in the Look AHEAD study

OutcomeQuartiles of SD of fasting plasma glucose, mg/dLPtrendPer SD
Q1 (<10.15)Q2 (10.15–17.53)Q3 (17.53–29.80)Q4 (>29.80)
All-cause mortality
 Model 1Reference1.37 (0.84 to 2.23)1.94 (1.22 to 3.10)**2.18 (1.37 to 3.48)**<0.0011.36 (1.19 to 1.55)***
 Model 2Reference1.27 (0.78 to 2.08)1.72 (1.07 to 2.78)*1.83 (1.12 to 2.98)*0.0071.29 (1.12 to 1.48)***
 Model 3Reference1.25 (0.76 to 2.05)1.65 (1.02 to 2.69)*1.66 (0.96 to 2.85)0.0391.29 (1.08 to 1.53)**
Cardiovascular mortality
 Model 1Reference0.98 (0.32 to 3.05)1.28 (0.43 to 3.82)2.78 (1.06 to 7.29)*0.0211.44 (1.10 to 1.90)**
 Model 2Reference0.99 (0.31 to 3.15)0.90 (0.26 to 3.06)2.27 (0.79 to 6.51)0.1041.30 (0.95 to 1.78)
 Model 3Reference0.98 (0.31 to 3.15)0.89 (0.26 to 3.08)2.20 (0.67 to 7.25)0.2101.25 (0.84 to 1.86)
CVD composite†
 Model 1Reference0.96 (0.70 to 1.31)1.06 (0.78 to 1.45)1.41 (1.05 to 1.89)*0.0181.20 (1.09 to 1.32)***
 Model 2Reference0.93 (0.68 to 1.28)0.90 (0.65 to 1.25)1.16 (0.85 to 1.58)0.3841.11 (1.01 to 1.24)*
 Model 3Reference0.89 (0.65 to 1.23)0.83 (0.60 to 1.16)0.94 (0.65 to 1.35)0.6201.03 (0.91 to 1.18)
Heart failureevent
 Model 1Reference2.89 (1.22 to 6.84)*2.92 (1.23 to 6.96)*4.23 (1.83 to 9.77)**0.0011.42 (1.19 to 1.69)***
 Model 2Reference2.45 (1.03 to 5.85)*2.44 (1.02 to 5.85)*2.79 (1.17 to 6.63)*0.0391.28 (1.04 to 1.56)*
 Model 3Reference2.33 (0.98 to 5.58)2.17 (0.89 to 5.26)2.05 (0.80 to 5.31)0.2561.17 (0.91 to 1.50)
  • Data are HRs (95% CIs) unless otherwise indicated.

  • Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and randomization arm. Model 2 includes variables in model 1 with further adjustment for body mass index, current smoking, alcohol drinking, use of antihypertensive medications, average ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, duration of diabetes, and average systolic blood pressure. Model 3 includes model 2 plus further adjustment for average fasting plasma glucose.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †CVD composite was a composite of myocardial infarction, hospitalization for angina, stroke, and death for cardiovascular causes.

  • AHEAD, Action for Health in Diabetes; CVD, cardiovascular disease; Q, quartile.