Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants by aICAS

CharacteristicsaICAS (n=99)Non-aICAS (n=1908)P value*
Age (years)63 (54, 71)55 (49, 65)<0.001
Male (n, %)39 (39.4)918 (48.1)0.090
Waist circumference (cm)94.4 (11.4)91.3 (9.3)<0.001
Hypertension (n, %)83 (83.8)1067 (55.9)<0.001
SBP (mm Hg)159 (149, 178)141 (128, 158)<0.001
DBP (mm Hg)91 (82, 99)87 (79, 96)0.017
Smoking habit (n, %)8 (8.1)439 (23.0)0.001
Drinking habit (n, %)23 (23.2)634 (33.2)0.039
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.31 (4.90, 6.27)5.29 (4.66, 5.96)0.115
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1.42 (1.03, 2.08)1.09 (0.80, 1.60)<0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.47 (1.25, 1.62)1.59 (1.36, 1.88)<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.13 (2.75, 3.75)2.93 (2.51, 3.39)<0.001
Use of cholesterol-lowering medications (n, %)0 (0.0)21 (2.8)0.233
Use of antihypertensive medication (n, %)38 (45.8)287 (26.9)<0.001
FPG (mmol/L)6.37 (5.54, 7.53)5.62 (5.23, 6.15)<0.001
DM (n, %)35 (35.4)272 (14.3)<0.001
Use of glucose-lowering medications (n, %)22 (62.9)117 (43.0)0.026
MetS (n, %)76 (76.8)874 (45.8)<0.001
HOMA-IR2.72 (1.72, 3.70)1.95 (1.26, 2.92)<0.001
Fasting insulin (mUI/L)9.43 (5.98, 12.72)7.67 (5.11, 10.91)0.003
IR (n, %)44 (44.4)448 (23.5)<0.001
  • Data were shown as numbers (%), mean (SD), and mean (first, third quartiles).

  • *Comparison according to presence of aICAS using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test appropriately.

  • aICAS, asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; ; IR, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥3.0); LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS, metabolic syndrome; SBP, systolic blood pressure.